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Апельсин

Славянск - apelsin.jpgСемейство
рутовых.
Вечнозеленое деревце. Листья овально-удлиненные. У черешков
небольшие крыловидные придатки. Цветки белые, обоеполые, душистые. Апельсин
цветет на ветвях текущего прироста. Плоды округлые, желтого и оранжевого
цвета. Среди сортов апельсина известны «корольки» с красной мякотью.
Размножают семенами, черенками.
Апельсинные привитые деревца вступают в пору плодоношения на 3—5-м году;
сеянцы, выращенные из семян, начинают плодоносить на 8—12-м году после
посева.
Начало вступления в пору плодоношения деревцев, выращенных из семян,
можно ускорить применением мичуринских методов воспитания сеянцев: прививка
в крону нескольких глазков с плодоносящих растений, правильная обрезка,
вырезка во время весеннего или и летнего сокодвижения с наиболее толстой
ветки сеянца кольца коры шириной в 0,75 см и прививка точно такого же
кольца с плодоносящего деревца.

СОВЕТЫ ПО УХОДУ

Температура: Апельсины требовательны
к свету и теплу. Бутонизация, цветение и завязывание плодов лучше всего
происходят при средней температуре воздуха и почвы + 15-18°C.
Зимой апельсины рекомендуется содержать в светлом холодном помещении
(до 12°C). Отсутствие холодной зимовки может привести к тому, что растение
не заплодоносит.

Освещение: Яркий рассеянный свет. Будет хорошо
около восточного и западного окна. Притенение от прямого солнца нужно
весной и летом в самые жаркие часы.

Полив: Летом и весной обильно 1—2 раза в
день теплой водой, зимой поливка редкая и умеренная — 1-2 раза в неделю
и тоже теплой водой. Однако и зимой нельзя допускать пересушки земляного
кома, так как это ведет к скручиванию листьев и опадению не только листьев,
но и плодов. С другой стороны, не надо забывать, что от избытка влаги
растения гибнут. Начиная с октября полив сокращают.

Влажность воздуха: Апельсины регулярно опрыскивают
в летний период, но если они содержатся зимой в помещении с центральным
отоплением, то опрыскивают и зимой. При содержании в помещении с сухим
воздухом апельсины подвергаются нападению вредителей (клещей и щитовок).

Пересадка: Молодые апельсиновые
деревца
надо пересаживать способом перевалки, ежегодно. Перевалку
не следует проводить, если корни у растения еще не
оплели земляной ком. В этом случае достаточно сменить дренажный и верхний
слои почвы в горшке. Плодоносящие деревца пересаживают не чаще одного
раза в 2—3 года. Пересаживают перед началом роста. По окончании роста
растения пересаживать не рекомендуется. При пересадках не
следует сильно разрушать земляной ком. Необходимо обеспечить хороший
дренаж. Корневая шейка в новой посуде должна быть на том же уровне,
на каком она находилась в старой посуде.

Почва для молодых апельсинов: 2
части дерновой, 1 часть листовой земли, 1 часть перегноя из коровьего
навоза и 1 часть песку.

Почва для взрослых апельсинов: 3
части дерновой, 1 часть листовой, 1 часть перегноя из коровьего навоза,
1 часть песку и небольшое количество жирной глины.

Удобрение апельсинов: В
первой половине лета применяют удобрительную поливку. Она повышает сахаристость
плодов и уменьшает горьковатый привкус, который свойствен плодам цитрусовых
при комнатной культуре. Растение тем больше нуждается в удобрении, чем
оно старше и чем дольше находится в одной посуде. Удобрения вносят после
поливки водой. При дополнительном искусственном освещении апельсинов
зимой их также необходимо удобрять. Для апельсинов рекомендуют органические
удобрения (жижу из коровьего навоза) и комбинированные минеральные удобрения,
в цветочных магазинах можно также купить специальные удобрения для цитрусовых.

Размножение: Размножение апельсинов, так же
как и лимонов проводят обычно прививкой, черенками, отводками и семенами.
В комнатных условиях наиболее распространенным способом размножения
цитрусовых является черенкование, но для того чтобы получить сорта апельсинов
полностью приспособленных к комнатной культуре, нужно выводить их из
семечка, посеянного в комнате, и выращивать в комнатных условиях.

Светолюбивое и теплолюбивое растение. При температуре
около 0°C, когда растение находятся в состоянии покоя и их жизнедеятельность
почти полностью прекращается, они без всякого ущерба переносят полное
затенение в течение 3—4 месяцев. Это свойство (значительная теневыносливость
цитрусовых в зимнее время) и дает возможность успешно разводить эти
растения в комнатах.

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