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Биофитум

Славянск - биофитумБиофитум — многолетнее травянистое растение родом из тропиков
Азии и Африки. Африканские и Азиатские тропики подарили нам этого весьма
прихотливого, но быстро растущего питомца по имени биофитум. Название,
которого происходит от двух греческих слов bios и phyton – жизнь и
растение.
Считается, что название этого цветка обусловлено тем, что у него есть
способность резко складывать свой лист от любого прикосновения. Растение
относится к многочисленному семейству кисличных, которое в естественной
среде насчитывает в девяти родах до девятисот видов. Биофитум в этом
огромном количестве завоевал для себя нишу почти в семьдесят видов.
Несмотря на это, как это бывает почти всегда, в комнатном цветоводстве
основательно прижился только один вид – биофитум чувствительный.
Надо
сказать, что он тоже относится к тем разновидностям этих растений,
которые резко складывают свои листья от любого прикосновения. Это
происходит из-за того, что в подушечках сочленений листьев растения
меняется тургорное давление в клетках. С большой натяжкой это можно
назвать инстинктом.

Размер у биофитума средний. Стоит отметить, что он весьма
требователен в условиях содержания. Ему необходима повышенная влажность,
регулярный круглогодичный полив, который лишь слегка сокращается в
зимний период, и субтропические условия. Поэтому чаще всего любители его
предпочитают выращивать в мини теплицах и террариумах.

Если растение находится не в тепличных условиях, то для него
характерен период покоя, начиная с октября месяца по самый февраль. Это
происходит из-за естественного понижения освещения, а так же влажности
воздуха помещений, в которых находятся растения. При любом варианте
зимовки биофитума, температура окружающего воздуха не должна быть ниже
семнадцати градусов.

Оптимальным составом почвы для биофитума будет равная смесь из
торфа, песка, перегноя дерновой и листовой земли. В готовой форме такой
состав можно купить в специализированных отделах магазинов. Среди
разнообразных земляных смесей он носит называние состав номер два.
Пересаживаются только взрослые, окрепшие растения один раз в два – три
года в такой же состав земли.

То, что растение предполагает в идеале тепличные условия, подразумевает то, что оно требует постоянного и яркого освещения.

Славянск - биофитум
Подкормка растения не очень обильная и происходить во время
вегетативного периода. Растение отлично переносит чередование
органических и минеральных удобрений. Периодичность подкормки в две –
три недели раз. При соблюдении всех необходимых условий, биофитум радует
своих владельцев обильным цветением с июля месяца по самый сентябрь.

Надо отметить, что биофитум относят к лечебным растениям. С
помощью экстракта из его листьев облегчаются симптомы диабета, так же
его лист является экстренным кровоостанавливающим средством. Этот метод
для заживления различного рода ран до сих пор широко применяется в
африканских странах, особенно в Мали. В этом государстве Западной Африки
помимо целебных свойств этого растения, активно используются его и, так
называемые, колдовские чары. Считается, что с помощью этого растения
можно вызвать страсть в своем предмете обожания.

 
Биофитум чувствительный (Biophytum sensitivum DC.). Синоним: Биофитум Петерса (Biophytum petersianum)
— Родина — тропики Азии и Африки. Растет на открытых местах, по
обочинам дорог, берегам рек. В горах растет на высоте до 1400 м над
уровнем моря. Многолетнее травянистое растение до 25 см выс. Стебли
прямостоячие, обычно неветвящиеся, с розетками листьев на концах. Листья
до 12 см дл., парно-перистосложные, в очертании
узко-обратнояйцевидно-ланцетные, состоящие из 6-17 пар листочков.
Листочки асимметричные, островатые, сверху длинносеребристо-опушенные,
снизу селкоопушенные, с утолщением в основании черешков. Листочки
складываются вдоль черешка при прикосновении к ним. Цветки по 2-4
собраны в щитковидные соцветия, выходящие на опушенных цветоносах до 4
см дл. из пазух листьев. Чашечка и венчик раздельные, пятичленные,
лепестки желтые. Цветение с июля по сентябрь.

Уход за биофитумом

Температура летом 22 — 25
Температура зимой не ниже 16

Славянск - биофитум фотоОсвещение: желательно яркое, свет рассеянный.

Полив биофитума: Требует яркого освещения и обильного
равномерного полива весь год. Забыть полить биофитум – значит загубить
его. Но болота не переносит.

Размножение биофитума: Конечно, как и все растения он
размножается семенами. Но в природе их растаскивают муравьи и они
всходят на достаточном удалении от материнских растений. Оставшиеся на
месте семена прорастают, но всходы погибают за счет тех веществ,
которые их мама-эгоистка выделяет в почву, чтобы защитить свою
территорию питания.
Но эгоистка она – только с нашей, человеческой точки зрения. В Природе действуют свои законы.
В домашних условиях для сбора семян совсем несложно на созревающие плодики надеть бумажные колпачки.

Размножают семенами, которые высеваются весной, температуру почвы необходимо поддерживать не менее 22° С.

Влажность воздуха: Регулярное опрыскивание, идеально для теплички.

Пересадка биофитума: через 1-3 года в горшки обычной формы.

Подрезание: Не требуется.

Вредители и болезни биофитума: Паутинный клещ.

Пусть многолетние растения всегда радуют Вас своей красотой!  

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