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Цинерария

Славянск - цинерарияЦинерария приморская Сineraria maritima — один из видов цинерарий семейства астровых (сложноцветных), всего в роду цинерарий насчитывают около 50 видов. Так сложилось, что у цинерарий есть еще одно название — крестовник приморский или крестовник пепельный, но чаще крестовником называют комнатные виды цинерарий. Хотя у цинерарии приморской есть еще много названий-синонимов.
Родиной цинерарии приморской считается Северная Африка (Алжир, Тунис, Марокко), Канарские острова, о-в Мадагаскар, но сегодня цинерария встречается в Западной Азии, по всей территории Европы, и даже распространена в Северной Америке.

Цинерария приморская в теплых странах растет как многолетник, у нас ее выращивают как однолетнюю культуру. Ее декоративные качества, терпимость к легкому притенению, отсутствию плодородия и увлажнения, сделали цинерарию привлекательной для выращивания в альпинариях, сухих каменистых садиках, миксбордерах, бордюрах, контейнерах, цветниках. Цинерария приморская незаменимое растение для создания фона и геометрических композиций из цветов.

Цинерарии представляют собой многолетние растения травянистой розеточной или кустарниковой формы высотой от 15 до 60 см. Обычно цинерарии в теплых странах успевают дать цветение в первый же год после посева, но у нас она редко расцветает, так как повреждается первыми заморозками и погибает. Но это не мешает ее культивировать как летник: цинерария отлично размножается семенами, и выращивается ради своей декоративно изрезанной листвы пепельно-серебристой окраски.
Славянск - цинерария фото
Ради цветов цинерарию приморскую практически не выращивают — цветки не представляют собой декоративной ценности. Соцветия цинерарий как и у остальных сложноцветных представляют собой желтую корзинку-ромашку с наружными язычковыми цветками (лепестками корзинки-ромашки) и внутренними трубчатыми. Чтобы получить семена цинерарий для посева в следующем году, в нашем климате необходимо выращивать цинерарию семенами рассадным способом, высевая еще в феврале. Тогда за лето цинерария успеет выпустить бутоны, расцвести и завязать семена.

Цинерария предпочитает все-таки светлые участки, но может примириться с некоторым количеством тени в течение дня. Не нуждается в поливах. Листва цинерарии приморской растет очень интенсивно, в культуре имеются различные сорта, которые отличаются высотой розетки, степенью рассечения листьев, а у некоторых сортов листва может иметь опушение. Обычно на листьях цинерарии приморской вместо пуха присутствует белесый войлочный налет, который и производит впечатление серебряной листвы.

 
На юге Крыма, на Черноморском побережье Кавказа цинерарию приморскую выращивают как многолетнее растение, зимующее без укрытия. И даже размножают черенкованием побегов. Здесь она цветет, вырастает до 60 см высотой, тогда как в более северных районах цинерария редко преодолевает за летний сезон высоту в 20-30 см. Любопытно, что в Крыму цинерария приморская рассевается самосевом и расселилась по каменно-щебенистым почвам и в расщелинах скал, где растет как дикое растение. На садовых почвах розетки и кустики цинерарий обычно развиваются более компактно и имеют густую листву, но не переносят избытка влаги, может пострадать. А вот к удобрениям цинерария относится избирательно: в начале вегетации в июне благотворно сказывается внесение азотистых удобрений. Достаточно одного раза за сезон, хотя можно и вовсе их не вносить.
 
Наиболее устойчивой к переувлажнению является разновидность
карликовой цинерарии — цинерария приморская циррхус. Это очень
компактное низкорослое растений с эффектной контрастной листвой,
используемое для бордюров. Другая разновиднось цинерарии приморской —
цинерария Сильвер Даст — отличается папоротниковидными листьями, также
имеет компактную низкорослую форму, очень ценится декоративными
качествами.

Славянск - цинерария фотоПриродный вид и сорта цинерарии приморской за сезон достигают в высоту 15-25 см (некоторые сорта — до полуметра). Если осенью до наступления существенных морозов (-5 градусов) присыпать кустики цинерарии сухими листьями, то они могут сохраниться зимой до следующего сезона. Весной погибшие листья и подмёрзшие части кустиков я обрезаю, чтобы они не мешали свободному росту молодых побегов.

Также осенью можно пересадить кустики цинерарии в горшки и определить на зимовку в прохладное светлое место, а весной вновь высадить их в сад.
На второй год жизни у цинерарии появляются цветоносы, на верхушках которых расцветают мелкие жёлтые соцветия. Цветки цинерарии приморской невзрачны и никакой ценности не представляют. Поэтому появляющиеся цветоносы лучше сразу обрезать.

Цинерария приморская солнцелюбива, засухоустойчива (требует обильного полива лишь в начале роста), к почве нетребовательна (но лучше растёт на рыхлой питательной земле).
Размножают цинерарию приморскую черенкованием (зелёными черенками длиной 10 см в череночнике летом) и семенами.

Высевают семена на рассаду в феврале-марте, слегка присыпая посевы мелкозернистым песком и закрывая плошку стеклом. На умеренно тёплом (18 градусов) освещённом месте всходы цинерарии приморской появляются через 1-2 недели. Вначале они развиваются медленно; пикировка проводится при появлении пары настоящих листьев.
Рассаду цинерарии высаживают в грунт с середины мая, на расстоянии около 25 см друг от друга.

 
Пусть садовые растения радуют Вас своей красотой! 
 

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