Девясил высокий

Народные названия: еленина трава,
дивосил. Используемые части: корневище и листья.

 Девясил высокий

Аптечное наименование: корневище девясила — Helenii rhizoma (ранее: Rhizoma
Helenii), листья девясила — Helenii folium (ранее: Folia Helenii), а также
Radix и Folia Helenii.

Ботаническое описание. Многолетнее растение с жестким, ветвящимся, утолщенным,
мясистым корневищем. От него отходит прямостоячий бороздчатый стебель
высотой свыше 1 (до 2,5) м, ворсисто-опушенный, разветвленный в верхней
части. Прикорневые листья крупные, удлиненно-эллиптические, с длинными
черешками. Стеблевые листья сердцевидные, стеблеобъемлющие. Все листья
с нижней стороны войлочно-опушенные и по краю неравномерно городчатые
или зубчатые.

Крупные соцветия-корзинки (диаметром 6-7 см) желтые, одиночные
или рыхло сгруппированы. Цветет с июня по сентябрь. В одичавшем состоянии
встречается по деревенским выгонам, в прибрежных кустарниках, возле изгородей
и заборов. Но еще иногда его с большой заботой выращивают на некоторых
приусадебных участках. Сбор я заготовка. Собирают осенью или весной корневища
мощно развитых растений в возрасте не менее 3 лет. Для сушки их режут
на кружки или по длине. Листья берут с молодых растений и сушат на воздухе.

Действующие вещества: эфирное масло с девясило-вой камфорой (эленин),
смесь разных алантолакто-нов, горечи в форме сесквитерпенлактонов, полиацетилены
и очень много инулина (крахмала сложноцветных).

Целебное действие и применение. Медицинское применение девясила различно.
Тут и разжижающее слизь и смягчающее кашель действие, и легкий спазмолитический
эффект. Это дает основание считать девясил испытанным компонентом хороших
чаев от кашля, которые могут быть действенны также при астме и коклюше.
Однако надо сказать, что активно применяют это растение лишь немногие
врачи.

  • Чай из корневища девясила: 1 чайную ложку с верхом сырья залить 1/4
    л кипящей воды и дать настояться 15 минут. При кашле и астме этот чай
    подслащивают медом и пьют небольшими глотками. Дозировка: 2-4 раза в
    день по 1 чашке.
  • Чайная смесь от кашля:
    Корневище девясила 20,0
    Трава тимьяна 15,0
    Корень первоцвета 5,0

Одну чайную ложку с верхом смеси всыпать в 1/4лхолодной воды, медленно
нагреть до кипения, дать покипеть примерно полминуты, процедить и пить
подсластив медом, небольшими глотками 2-4 раза в день по 1 чашке.

Применение в народной медицине. Не новость, что одним и тем же растением
в народной медицине лечат многие недуги. Особенно это касается девясила.
Здесь на переднем плане стоят болезни легких с кашлем, далее следуют желудочно-кишечные
заболевания, болезни желчного пузыря, печени, мочевого пузыря и почек.
Показан он также при метеоризме, желтухе, задержке мочи, поносе и глистах.
Применяется девясил преимущественно в виде чая по приведенному выше рецепту.
При потере аппетита рекомендуют перед едой жевать корни девясила. Считается,
что свежие листья девясила, положенные на раны, способствуют их заживлению,
ускоряют созревание нарывов, размягчают опухоли. Пытались делать и мази
из девясила, но они не получили большого распространения.

Побочные действия. Передозировки ведут к рвоте и болям в желудке. Часто
бывает аллергия. Государственная служба здравоохранения Германии придерживается
мнения, что, несмотря на все восхваления корневища девясила, его действенность
при вышеназванных показаниях недостаточно подтверждена, и поэтому считает
себя не вправе высказываться за его применение из-за возможных побочных
действий.

Примечание. Вышесказанное отрицательное отношение к девясилу, естественно,
не может служить запретом его применения.

 

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