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Диморфотека

Славянск - диморфотекаДиморфотека — название: происходит от греческих слов ‘dimorphos’ — двуформенный и ‘theke’ — емкость, что объясняется наличием двух типов плодов у представителей этого рода. Описание: известно около 20 видов. Диморфотеки в природе произрастают в туманных пустынях и на влажных пастбищах Южной Африки, но особенно их много в Капской провинции (окрестности Кейптауна). Они предпочитают места, где осаждающиеся туманы просачиваются сквозь рыхлый щебень, благодаря чему на определенной глубине скапливается влага.
Поэтому у растений длинные стержневые корни, на концах которых
образуется небольшая мочка. Растения однолетние и многолетние,
травянистые или полукустарниковые, с приподнимающимися стеблями. Листья
собраны в прикорневую розетку или расположены в очередном порядке,
цельные, узкие, зубчатые или перисто-раздельные. Соцветия — одиночные,
верхушечные корзинки. Язычковые цветки сверху белые, желтые или
оранжевые, снизу фиолетовые или пурпуровые; трубчатые — мелкие, желтые,
пурпуровые или темно-коричневые, иногда почти черные. Обертка
однорядная, чешуи тонкие, заостренные. Цветоносы длинные. Ночью, да и
днем при сырой и пасмурной погоде, соцветия закрыты. Это приспособление
выработалось у них в процессе эволюции для защиты пыльцы от влаги. В
сухую погоду соцветия открываются ранним утром и закрываются в 16—17
часов. Плод — дисковидная, плоская серовато-желтая семянка без хохолка.
В 1 г до 600 семян, которые сохраняют всхожесть 3 года. 

Диморфотека выемчатая — О.
sinuata = D. calendulacea = D. aurantiaca

Родина — Южная Африка. Однолетнее прямостоячее и ветвистое от основания
травянистое растение, образующее густо облиственный, полушаровидный
кустик 30-40 см высотой. Листья удлиненные, выемчатые по краю,
суживающиеся к основанию, интенсивно-зеленые, хрупкие, голые. Соцветия
— очень изящные, крупные корзинки 5-7 см в диаметре с ярко-оранжевыми,
блестящими язычковыми цветками, с темно-коричневым пятном у основания;
небольшим диском черно-коричневых, трубчатых цветков. Цветоносы
крепкие, тонкие, опушенные. Цветет обильно с середины июня по сентябрь.
Дает самосев. Семена сохраняют всхожесть 2-3 года. В культуре с 1798
года. 

Диморфотека дождевая — D.
luvialis = Calendula pluvialis = D. annua

Родина — западные районы Южной Африки. Однолетнее травянистое растение
с прямостоячими или распростертыми стеблями 15-20 см высотой. Листья
удлиненные, опушенные. Соцветия на длинных цветоносах с изящными
язычковыми цветками, сверху белыми или кремовыми, снизу пурпуровыми;
трубчатые цветки золотисто-коричнезые, образуют маленький диск. Цветки
и листья ароматные. В культуре с 1752 года.
При скрещивании обоих видов и дальнейших отборах получены сорта с
золотисто-желтыми, лососевыми и белыми соцветиями. Особенно красивы
тетраплоидные диморфотеки.

Сорта:
‘Тетра Голиаф’ (Telra Goliath’) корзинки очень крупные (до 10 см в
диаметре), золотисто-оранжевые с черным пятном в основании язычковых
цветков. Куст объемный, с многочисленными соцветиями на длинных
цветоносах. Сорт годится на срезку и для оформления.
‘Тетра Полярштерн’ (‘Tetra Polarstern’=’Teira Polestar’) напоминает д.
дождевую, но у него более крупные (около 8 см в диаметре), чисто-белые
соцветия с интенсивным фиолетовым пятном в основании язычковых цветков.
Высота куста 40—45 см. Сорт обильно цветет и прекрасно смотрится в саду
благодаря контрастной бело-фиолетовой окраске. Его можно выращивать на
каменистых горках и в балконных ящиках.
‘Глиснинг Уайт’ (‘Glistening White’) интродуцирован из Южной Африки и
внешне напоминает д. дождевую, только соцветия у него чисто-белые,
шелковистые. Высота растений 30 см. Очень хорош для бордюров.
‘Ригенз’ (‘Rigens’) язычковые цветки голубые с белым краем. Куст плотный, высотой 20—25 см.
‘Джаинт Микст’ (‘Giant Mixed’) представляет собой смесь растений с
соцветиями пастельных оттенков оранжевого, желтого и розового цветов.
Высота куста 30 см. Отличается обильным цветением. Годится для любых
цветников и горшечной культуры.
‘Старшаин’ (‘Starshine’) соцветия ярко-карминовые, розовые или белые с
желтым центром, устойчивые к выгоранию. Растения компактные, высотой до
30 см, к почвам не требовательны. Идеальны для каменистых садиков,
бордюров и горшечной культуры.

Месторасположение: диморфотеки — растения свето- и теплолюбивые.
Поэтому место для них выбирают солнечное, лучше всего подходят южные
склоны.
Почва: должна быть очень рыхлой, водопроницаемой, но небогатой
питательными веществами. На удобренных участках растения развивают
мощные кусты, но цветут слабо.Не переносят избытка влажности почвы и
воздуха!
Уход: обычный. Следует своевременно удалять завядшие соцветия, это
способствует образованию новых бутонов и улучшает внешний вид растений.

Размножение: семенами, посев которых проводят в начале апреля в
парники. Оптимальная температура для прорастания 16 град, всходы
появляются через 7-14 дней после посева. Подросшие растения пикируют в
9 см горшки по 3 штуки. В мае можно сеять в открытый грунт. Зацветают
через 2-3 месяца после посева. Рассаду высаживают после окончания
весенних заморозков, выдерживая расстояние между растениями 15-20 см.
Однако диморфотеки очень чувствительны к повреждению корней, которые
впоследствии восстанавливаются чрезвычайно медленно. Только сеянцы
можно пикировать в горшочки, и то часть растений все равно погибает.
Лучше обойтись без пересадки и посеять семена весной сразу на
постоянное место, а потом проредить всходы. В средней полосе
европейской России диморфотеки высевают на постоянное место в середине
мая, а после появления всходов прореживают. Цветение начинается через
б—7 недель после появления всходов и длится 35—65 дней.
Семена созревают недружно и легко высыпаются из корзинок, собирать их
надо в несколько приемов. Недозревшие корзинки легко дозреваются при
комнатной температуре. Чтобы сорт не терял декоративных качеств, надо
собирать семена только с ранозацветающих крупноцветных экземпляров.
Использование: диморфотеки с их изящными лучистыми соцветиями могут
украсить любой цветник. Их используют как в чистых насаждениях, так и в
сочетании с другими культурами, например, арктотисами, урсинией,
венидиумом, акроклиниумом. В каменистых садиках их лучше сажать рядом с
такими же засухоустойчивыми растениями, отделив от более влаголюбивых.
Партнеры: сочетается с ярками летниками, прежде всего с сортами с белыми цветками (агератум, гелиотроп, петуния и пеларгония).

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