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Дурман

Славянск - дурманДурман  Datura metel — родина этого вида дурмана — Азия, хотя сейчас он растет как садовое растение и даже как сорняк в большинстве тропических районов мира. Многолетнее травянистое растение до 1,5 м высотой, сильно ветвящееся. Листья черешковые, крупные, пластинка асимметричная, край цельный или слегка волнистый. Цветки с белым венчиком. Венчики дурмана могут достигать 20 см в длину. Цветки всегда направлены вертикально вверх, как свечки. У сортовых форм они могут быть не только белыми, но и пурпурными, фиолетовыми и желтыми. У сорта ‘Flore Pleno’ цветки имеют махровый пурпурный околоцветник, испещренный белыми пятнышками.
Листья, стебли, цветки и корни дурмана ядовиты. Несмотря на то что его
побеги могут достигать длины 1,5 м, в странах с умеренным климатом они
вырастают намного короче, особенно при посадке в контейнеры. Плод —
шаровидная коробочка с мягкими шипами, вскрывающаяся неправильными
трещинами. Семена ярко-желтые.
 
В средней полосе России выращивают как сезонный
однолетник. Семена сеют в помещении в марте-апреле или прямо в открытый
грунт в мае, выбирая для этого теплые солнечные места. Растение очень
неприхотливо и нуждается только в рыхлой питательной почве. Фаза
цветения начинается через три недели после посева. Дурман обыкновенный — Datura stramonium

В Нидерландах это растение называют “колючим яблоком”, так как его круглые плоды действительно покрыты многочисленными колючками. Это средство защиты, предохраняющее их от поедания травоядными животными на родине дурмана — в Америке. Кроме того, все части растения очень ядовиты. Токсин, вырабатываемый его клетками, обладает сильным обезболивающим средством и может использоваться в хирургии. Именно поэтому дурман обыкновенный раньше возделывали в аптекарских огородах как лекарственное растение. Оттуда он распространился по всей Европе, и его одичавшую форму можно встретить почти повсеместно, где есть плодородная почва.
Корневая система стержневая, ветвистая, мощная. Стебель прямой, вильчато-ветвистый, голый, высотой 50…120 см. Листья очередные, яйцевидные, черешковые, сверху темно-зеленого цвета, снизу светлее. Цветки крупные, размещены одиночно в развилках стебля, имеют сильный дурманящий запах. Венчик белый. Плод— яйцевидная, многосеменная четырехстворчатая коробочка, снаружи, покрытая шипиками. При созревании коробочка растрескивается. Семена черные, матовые, округло-почковидные, длиной Э.,.3,5 мм, шириной 2.5…3, толщиной 1,5…2 мм. Масса 1000 шт. семян— 5…8 г. В одной коробочке может содержаться 500…800 шт. семян. Плодовитость одного растения — 25…45,5 тыс. семянок. Свежесозревшие семена прорастают только в засушливые годы. Семена прорастают с глубины не более 10…12 см. Минимальная температура прорастания 10…12, оптимальная 24…28°С. Семядоли длиной 23…25, шириной 3…5 мм, продолговато-линейные.

При выращивании в саду дурман лучше всего чувствует себя на компостной или навозной куче. Если почвенные условия благоприятны (земля должна быть рыхлой и богатой питательными веществами), он будет распространяться самосевом. Иногда семена прорастают уже осенью, и всходы благополучно переносят не слишком сильные морозы. После суровой зимы оставшиеся семена в марте-апреле вновь прорастают. Искусственный посев лучше проводить в апреле-мае. Фаза цветения наступает в июле и длится до сентября. Цветки обычно имеют белые венчики.
У обыкновенного дурмана известно несколько вариаций. D. stramonium var. tatula отличается очень красивой сиренево-голубой окраской цветков. D. stramonium f. inermis пользуется повышенным спросом, так как его плоды лишены колючек (inermis в переводе означает “невооруженный”

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