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Гелениум

Славянск - Гелениум Гелениум (Helenium) относится к семейству сложноцветных.
Предположительно, род получил название по имени жены царя Менелая —
прекрасной Елены, похищенной когда-то Парисом. Эти декоративные садовые растения
прекрасно ощущают себя в цветниках с плотной засадкой. Размещая
гелениум в саду, не забывайте об условиях, которые эти цветы
предпочитают в природе — густое разнотравье, земли влажных лугов.
Родина гелениума — Северная и Центральная Америка. Известно более 30 видов. Однолетние или многолетние корневищные, травянистые растения. Гелениумы не имеют многолетнего корневища. Цветоносные стебли к зиме отмирают вместе с корнями. Но почки, образовавшиеся на подземной части однолетнего стебля, к этому времени образуют розетку листьев с корнями. Эта розетка на следующий год и дает цветоносный стебель. То есть у гелениумов отсутствует куст в общепринятом смысле, а имеются тесно сидящие самостоятельные растения. Стебли прямые, наверху ветвистые, до 160 см высотой.
 
Листья гелениума расположены в очередном порядке, ланцетные. Соцветия — корзинки, одиночные или собраны в щит-ковидные соцветия. Краевые цветки язычковые, желтые, оранжевые, пурпуровые, коричневые или двуцветные; центральные — трубчатые, желтые или коричневые. Семянки продолговато-цилиндрические, слегка опушенные.

Среди немногочисленной группы многолетников, цветущих осенью, никак нельзя обойти вниманием гелениум. Мощные кусты этого растения усыпаны соцветиями в желто-красно-коричневой гамме, гармонирующей с окружающими осенними красками.

Высаживают гелениум на заднем плане больших
цветников, около декоративных кустарников, группами или одиночно, около
оград, построек, которые желательно задекорировать растениями.
 
Гелениум гибридный — Н. х hybridum hort.  Сюда относят большинство садовых гибридов неясного происхождения, однако
основным исходным видом, как правило, является гелениум осенний. Сорта
различаются по высоте, размерам, форме и окраске соцветий, срокам и продолжительности
цветения. Например: 

‘Гартензонне’ (‘Gartcnsonnе’) — Растение до 130 см высотой. Соцветия
до 3,5 см в диаметре. Язычковые цветки красновато-желтые, трубчатые — желто-коричневые.
Цветет с июля. 

‘Гольдлакцверг’ (‘Goldlackzwerg’) — Растение до 100 см
высотой. Соцветия 3,5-4,5 см в диаметре. Язычковые цветки коричнево-оранжевые
с желтыми кончиками, трубчатые — коричнево-желтые. Цветет с июля. 

Ротгаут‘ (‘Rothaut’) — РСлавянск - Гелениум фотоастение до 120 см высотой. Соцветия
около 4,5 см в диаметре. Язычковые цветки красно-бурые, трубчатые — желто-коричневые.
Цветет с июля.

 
Прекрасно
сочетается гелениум с осеннецветущими многолетними астрами. Очень хороши
соцветия в осенних букетах, их срезают полностью распущенными, так как
в воде они не раскрываются.

Месторасположение: гелениумы светолюбивы, но переносят полутень.

Почва: предпочитают плодородные, хорошо обработанные и обеспеченные влагой нейтральные почвы.

Уход: в сухую и жаркую погоду нуждаются в обильном поливе. Хорошо отзываются на органические и минеральные подкормки (2-3 раза за лето). Растения зимостойкие, но если их не делить дольше 3-4 лет, то розетки могут подмерзать. Дело в том, что почки каждый год закладываются все выше по стеблю и в конце концов оказываются над землей. Часто делить его необходимо еще и потому, что крупные, быстро разрастающиеся кусты сильно истощают землю. Продлить цветение можно, укоротив часть стеблей в июне. Эти стебли будут ветвиться и зацветут позже. На зиму отцветшие стебли обрезают до земли.

Размножение гелениума: делением куста и семенами, посев которых производят осенью или весной в грунт или в ящики. Семена прорастают на свету 14-20 дней при +18-22°С. Сеянцы пикируют в фазе двух — трех настоящих листочков, посадку в грунт осуществляют в начале июня, выдерживая расстояние 30-35 см. Молодые растения цветут в следующем году. Гелениум осенний и гибридный лучше делить в мае. Делится гелениум легко, при выкопке растение распадается на отдельные розетки с корнями. Расстояние между растениями 80-100 см.

Использование гелениума: высаживают гелениум на заднем плане больших цветников, около декоративных кустарников, группами или одиночно, около оград, построек, которые желательно задекорировать растениями. Прекрасно сочетается гелениум с осеннецветущими многолетними астрами. Очень хороши соцветия в осенних букетах, их срезают полностью распущенными, так как в воде они не раскрываются. 

 
Пусть садовые растения и цветы радуют Вас своей красотой! 

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