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Георгины выращивание и хранение

Славянск - ГеоргиныГеоргины — красивые, надёжные, долгоцветущие растения с широкой гаммой
окраски соцветий и разнообразием форм. Георгины любят и в деревнях, и в рабочих поселках, и на
садовых участках. Садоводы-любители выращивают как крупно-, так и
мелкодекоративные разновидности георгин. 
Георгины своим обильным
цветением украсят сад любого стиля. Цветущие кусты георгин замечательно
смотрятся в саду и вблизи, и издали. Соцветия срезочных георгин стоят в
вазе до двух недель.

Георгины — растения теплолюбивые и повреждаются первыми незначительными
заморозками. Поэтому их нельзя высаживать на пониженньх участках.
Следует учитывать, что стебли георгинов легко ломаются, поэтому место
для высадки должно быть защищенным от ветров. Почвы требуют высокого
содержания гумуса и хорошей влагопроницаемости. Тяжелые песчаные почвы
непригодны для георгинов.

Выращивание георгин

Георгины сравнительно неприхотливы и не требуют особых условий выращивания, не требуют трудоёмкого ухода — их легко вырастить даже начинающему садоводу.

Георгины
– благодарные растения, хорошо растущие и обильно цветущие на солнечном
месте с плодородной землёй, достаточным количеством влаги.
При
выращивании георгин необходимо учесть, что в кусте необходимо оставлять
не более трёх стеблей. Если побегов на растении оставить больше, то
соцветия георгин будут намного мельче и менее декоративными.
Крупные кусты георгин желательно подвязать к опоре, чтобы от ветра не сломались побеги с многочисленными тяжёлыми соцветиями.

Славянск - ГеоргиныМолодые сочные побеги георгин в саду нужно оберегать от слизней.
Когда  георгины зацветают, то их бутоны часто портят вредители –
двухвостки (уховёртки). Насекомые выгрызают нежные ткани бутона, и при
его роспуске соцветие становится уродливым. Эти вредители занимаются
своим чёрным делом ночью.

При появлении признаков нападения двухвосток
на георгины, чтобы избавить растения от порчи этими вредителями, нужно
периодически (примерно раз в неделю) обрабатывать вечером кусты георгин
отваром растений-защитников — полыни, чистотела и других полезных трав. Это сохранит прекрасные соцветия георгин в целости.

Поскольку
георгины являются теплолюбивыми растениями, то начинающих садоводов и
поклонников этой культуры в первую очередь интересует вопрос: как же
надёжно уберечь своих красавцев до весны в полной сохранности?

Хочу
поделиться своим опытом подготовки клубней георгин к зимнему хранению и
способами организации их зимовки, а также расскажу о проращивании
клубней весной.

Подготовка клубней георгин к хранению

У георгин клубни вырастают большими и крепкими, полноценно вызревают
только при тёплом лете и достаточном количестве влаги в почве в течение
сезона.

Качественные клубни георгин, аккуратно выкопанные и не поражённые
болезнями и почвенными вредителями (медведка, личинки проволочников и
хрущей, др.), зимой успешно сохраняются при благоприятных условиях.

Славянск - Георгины выращиваниеКак
только ударяют осенние морозы, надземная часть кустов георгин замерзает
и чернеет. Острым секатором или прочным наточенным ножом срезаю
поникшие побеги георгин на высоту 15 см от корня. Затем обкапываю куст
со всех сторон и осторожно извлекаю хрупкие клубни из почвы, стараясь
не поранить и не обломать их.
После этого очищаю клубни и корни
георгина от земли и опускаю их в просторную посудину с водой, чтобы
хорошо отмыть от земли всё корневище.

Потом переношу чистое корневище в другую посуду — с ярким раствором
марганцовки (делаю раствор среднего состава: то есть, не очень светлый
и не слишком темный) и держу в этом растворе 30 мин.
Очистка от земли, промывка водой и обработка клубней георгин
марганцовкой позволяет уничтожить патогенных возбудителей болезней,
находящихся в почве.

После
окончания обработки марганцовкой извлекаю клубни из раствора и ставлю
их вверх корневищем, давая таким образом стечь всей влаге, уйти воде с
корневищ и из
полой части стеблей. Подсушив полдня корневища георгин, закладываю их на хранение.

Все эти мероприятия позволяют чистым и сухим клубням георгин более
надёжно перезимовать, чтобы во время хранения не образовалась плесень
на остатках стволов – это
может погубить корневища георгин.

Хранение клубней георгин

Лучше всего хранить георгины в тёмном, прохладном, проветриваемом, сухом месте с температурой около + 5 градусов.
Рекомендую хранить корневища георгин в подполе или незамерзающем
подвале, уложив их одним слоем в ящики и засыпав хвойными опилками.
Можно использовать для пересыпки клубней георгин перлит и другие подходящие материалы.
Но мой опыт показывает, что лучше всё же поместить георгины в хвойные
опилки: при этом корневище не пересыхает и дышит, а опилки отдают
хранящимся в них клубням оптимальную долю влаги и одновременно
дезинфицируют их смолистыми фитонцидами. В хвойных опилках клубни
георгин сохраняются отлично – вплоть до весны остаются в прекрасном
состоянии.

Славянск - Георгины выращиваниеВторой способ хранения клубней георгин больше
подойдёт для городских садоводов, при отсутствии подвала и дефиците
места хранения.
Подберите ящик, подходящий по величине для хранения
имеющихся корневищ георгин. Перед закладкой в него клубней
предварительно необходимо проделать в боковых стенках ящика несколько
отверстий диаметром 8-10 мм для вентиляции и нормального газообмена
корневищ.
Уложите на дно ящика слой клубней георгин и засыпьте (опилками,
перлитом, др.). Сверху разместите ещё один слой клубней, и опять
засыпьте используемыми материалами. Наполните так ящик доверху и
поставьте его в самое прохладное место в квартире.
До установления морозов можно хранить георгины осенью на балконе, а при
похолодании занести ящик с клубнями в квартиру и поставить у балконной
двери.

Проращивание клубней георгин весной

Весной,
в апреле вынимаю корневища георгин из хранилища и внимательно
осматриваю их. Обнаруженные поражённые места у клубней удаляю до
здоровых тканей, обрабатываю зелёнкой все срезы и немного подсушиваю
их.

Славянск - Георгины выращиваниеЗатем помещаю клубни георгин в низкие ящики, засыпая их землёй для дальнейшего проращивания и черенкования.
При посадке клубней георгин нельзя заглублять их: верхняя часть
корневища должна выступать над поверхностью почвы на 2-3 см, чтобы
исключить загнивание шейки (участок, разграничивающий корневище и
стволы) и порчу клубней.
Почки возобновления георгин располагаются у самой корневой шейки — отсюда и будут отрастать молодые побеги.

Пусть наши советы по выращиванию георгин, помогут вырастить эти чудесные цветы георгины.

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