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Гибискус (китайская роза)

Славянск - gibiskus2.jpgЧашечка воронковидно- колокольчатая, зеленая, до 3 см длиной. Венчик
раздельный, до 10-12 см в диаметре, пятичленный, различной окраски — от
белой до желтой и темно-пурпурной. Тычиночные нити срастаются в трубку,
которая далеко выдается из цветка и заключает в себе столбик пестика,
увенчанный торчащим над трубкой рыльцем. Цветет почти круглый год.
Цветки цветут только день или два, но при правильном уходе новые цветки
будут появляться с весны до осени. Естественное время цветения — зима.
Родина — Юго-Восточная Азия (Южный Китай) и Полинезия, северная Индия.
В культуре ранее 1831 г. Известны многочисленные садовые формы,
различающиеся по степени махровости, размерам и окраске цветков.

Местоположение
 
летом светлое и солнечное, но защищенное от прямых солнечных лучей в полуденные часы. На воздухе может находиться на солнце.Зимует в светлом месте при температуре 14-16 градусов, что положительно сказывается на будущем цветении, однако может расти и при температуре около 20 градусов.

Полив
 
Летом — обильный, почва постоянно должна быть влажной. Зимой при прохладном местоположении — ограниченный. Пересыхание земляного кома вызывает сбрасывание цветочных почек. Растение, зимующее при более высокой температуре, нуждается в частом опрыскивании.

При слишком сухом воздухе листья сморщиваются. Нуждается в опрыскивании.

Уход

 
Растение неприхотливо, содержат зимой при температуре 12-18 градусов. Светолюбиво. Нуждается в обрезке. Растет быстро, образуя раскидистый куст. летом растениям необходимо много света (но не прямого солнечного), ежедневное опрыскивание и подкормки. Зимой — умеренный полив и содержание в прохладном месте.

Славянск - gibiskus1.jpgМолодые растения следует ежегодно пересаживать, а затем — по мере необходимости. Чтобы придать растению декоративную форму, его следует подрезать. Гибискус реагирует на изменение угла падения света сбрасыванием цветочных почек. Чрезмерный полив или пересыхание земляного кома, резкое колебание температуры или недостаток света также вызывают сбрасывание почек. При недостаточной влажности воздуха листья сморщиваются. Растение хорошо растет на гидропонике.

Размножение

 
июле-августе срезают зеленые верхушечные черенки с 2-3 междоузлиями, высаживают их в горшки и накрывают банками. Через месяц черенки укореняются. Весной молодые растения пересаживают в большие горшки с питательной смесью, состоящей из дерновой (4 части), листовой (3 части) земли, перегноя (1 часть) и речного песка (1 часть). Чтобы молодые растения не вытягивались и развивались боковые побеги, их обрезают. Цветочные почки в основном закладываются на побегах 3-4-го порядка ветвления, поэтому к прищипке и обрезке главного и боковых побегов приступают тогда, когда они достигнут 8-10 см длины. От момента обрезки и прищипки до цветения проходит 3-3,5 месяца.

Пересадка

 
В любое время года в почвенную смесь, состоящую из равных частей дерновой, листовой и перегнойной земли. можно добавить немного песка. При посадке обрезают ветки гибискуса на 1/3 длины. Это усиливает рост молодых подегов и растение выглядит более красивым.

Возможные трудности
 
Основные вредители — паутинный клещ и тля. инами могут быть сквозняки и пересыхание почвы.

Опадают бутоны
Наиболее вероятная причина — пересыхание почвы. Другими причинами могут быть недостаток питательных веществ и внезапная перемена температуры.

Сморщиваются листья
Причина — слишком сухой воздух. Весной и летом опрыскивайте листья.

Опадают листья

Наиболее вероятная причина — пересыхание почвы. Другими причинами могут быть сквозняки и пересыхание почвы.

Полезные свойства
 
В странах естественного произрастания гибискуса его молодые листья и побеги употребляют в пищу в качестве овощного блюда, высушенные лепестки цветков входят в состав чаев «Суданская роза» и «Каркадэ». Из цветков получают черную краску для волос и пурпурную для пищевой промышленности. Применяют гибискус и в медицине: листья и цветки, растертые в однородную массу, помогают при злокачественных опухолях, кашицу из цветков используют для лечения карбункулов, язв злокачественного происхождения.

 

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