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Голубика

Народные названия: болотная ягода, пьяная ягода, болотная черника. Используемые части: плоды и листья. Аптечное наименование: плоды голубики — Uliginosi fractus (ранее: Fructus
Uliginosi), листья голубики — Uliginosi folium (ранее: Folia Uliginosi). Ботаническое описание. Многолетнее растение с длинным корневищем, от которогоГолубика
отходят округлые, серо-бурые, голые, одревесневшие стебли, достигающие
в высоту 50 см и превращающие растение в растопыренный кустарник. На стеблях
располагаются короткочерешковые, обратнояйцевидные или удлиненные, цельнокрайние,
жесткие листья с отчетливо видным снизу перистым жилкованием;с верхней
стороны они сине-зеленые, с нижней — матово-зеленые.

По концам коротких
боковых веточек располагаются белые или красноватые бокальчатые цветки,
из которых развиваются грушевидные, реже — шаровидные, синие, с белым
налетом ягоды. Голубику легко спутать с черникой, хотя растения ее грубее,
крупнее и менее компактны. Основное же, что отличает голубику от черники,
— плоды с зеленоватой мякотью и бесцветным соком. Вкус ягод голубики скорее
приторно-сладкий в отличие от ягод черники, ароматных и кисловатых на
вкус. Цветет с мая по июль. Встречается во влажных лесах и кустарниках,
на болотах и в хвойных лесах с болотистой почвой.

Сбор и заготовка. Листья снимают во время цветения и быстро сушат в тени
или даже при искусственном подогреве. Плоды собирают по достижении ими
спелости и сушат при искусственном подогреве или на солнце.

Действующие вещества: органические кислоты, минеральные вещества, дубильные
вещества, витамины (особенно витамин С), гликозид и арбутин. Содержание
арбутина в листьях больше, чем в плодах.

Целебное действие и применение. Целебное действие голубики во многом сходно
с действием черники. К их родственникам относятся также брусника и толокнянка,
поэтому неудивительно, что в народной медицине практически одинаково используют
листья голубики, черники, брусники и толокнянки. Нет единства мнений и
относительно того, что касается возможного ядовитого действия голубики.
В одних «ягодных книгах» она рассматривается как ядовитая, в
других — нет.

Применение в народной медицине. В народной медицине используют листья
и сушеные ягоды голубики в виде чая от поносов и болезней мочевого пузыря.
Благодаря химическому составу (дубильные вещества-от поноса, а арбутин
— как средство для дезинфекции мочевого пузыря) это применение вполне
оправданно, но от этих недугов есть более эффективные средства, поэтому
трудно понять, почему народная медицина столь упорно держится за голубику.
Чай из сушеных ягод готовят, как и чай из листьев.

  • Чай из голубики: 2 чайные ложки с верхом ягод или листьев залить
    1/4 л холодной воды, дать настояться 10-12 часов и процедить. Пить по
    1 чашке 1-2 раза в день, предварительно подогрев до приемлемой для питья
    температуры.

Побочные действия. Я уже говорил, что нет единства мнений относительно
того, ядовита голубика или нет. После употребления ее в больших количествах
могут наступить состояния, сходные с опьянением: тошнота, рвота, головные
боли. И хотя ядовитых веществ в ягодах голубики обнаружить не удалось,
можно говорить только о субъективных наблюдениях, но и это — достаточно
веский повод для того, чтобы избегать употребления ягод голубики в большом
количестве (Существует мнение, что указанное отрицательное действие ягод
голубики связано с тем, что она часто произрастает совместно с багульником
болотным (Ledum paluslre L., см. с. 394) и эфирные масла последнего при
сборе голубики попадают на пальцы собирающего, а с них и на ягоды. Это
будто бы подтверждается тем, что при сборе голубики в отсутствии багульника
никаких симптомов «опьянения» не наблюдалось.)

 

 

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