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Камнеломка

Славянск - камнеломкаКамнеломка Saxifraga x arendsii — это травянистые
многолетники, растущие в основном в трещинах на камнях, откуда они и
получили свое название. В цветоводстве обычно используются многолетние
камнеломки. Различают мохообразные камнеломки и камнеломки с цельными
округлыми листьями. Тонкорасщепленные листья мохообразных камнеломок
собраны в розетки, которые в своей массе образуют плотные низкие
дерновинки изумрудно-зеленого цвета.
Листья у этих камнеломок зимнезеленые. Ежегодно нижние листья розетки
отмирают, а нарастание идет верхушкой. За счет этого внутри у
дерновинки, как у мха, нижние части побегов голые, коричневые. В период
цветения над зеленым ковром поднимаются цветоносы высотой до 20 см с
одним — тремя цветками колокольчатой формы. Окраска цветков белая или
розовая.
 
Свое название род получил из-за способности растений селиться и расти в ущельях среди камней, в трещинах скал, и происходит название камнеломка от двух латинских слов: «saxum» — скала и «frango» — разбивать.

Род камнеломки (близкий родственник которой бадан) относится к семейству камнеломковых. Большинство представителей рода являются травянистыми многолетними растениями, но есть среди камнеломок однолетние и даже двулетние виды. Практически все камнеломки представляют собой почвопокровные растения, у которых листики плотно прижаты к земле (не растут высоко, большинство видов не превышает 15-20 см в высоту, исключение составляет камнеломка длиннолистная, растущая до 60 см высотой). Часто листочки камнеломок рассечены или изрезаны, такая метаморфоза произошла в результате приспособления камнеломки к среде обитания в дефиците влаги. Чтобы уменьшить испарение воды, которая в каменистых грунтах редко задерживается, у многих видов присутствует легкое опушение листочков волосками. Камнеломка была описана еще в 1 в. врачом и ботаником Диоскоридом, а Чарльз Дарвин ошибочно предполагал, что растение принадлежит семейству росянковых.

Цветут камнеломки, выгСлавянск - камнеломкаоняя безлиственные цветоносы, которые часто намного возвышаются над розеткой листьев. Соцветия могут быть представлены одиночными цветками или собранными в рыхлые метелки. Цветки мелкие, пятилепестковые, чаще всего белоокрашенные, но встречаются виды с желтоватыми или розовыми и красными цветками.

Все камнеломки происходят родом из Альпийского пояса, они не встречаются в диком виде за пределами умеренных широт Северного полушария, наиболее сконцентрированы в субарктических и арктических районах Земли и в горах Тропической Америки. Не смотря на свое название, камнеломки все-таки обитают не только среди камней и высокогорий, определены многие виды этого растения, традиционно живущие во влажных альпийских пастбищах, на лугах в Гренландии, Великобритании и некоторых других частях Западной Европы.

Со времен открытия камнеломки человеком в садах появилось множество гибридов этого растения. Камнеломки не требовательны к почве, переносят легкое и кратковременное притенение, и особенно полюбились цветоводам за эффектное декорирование каменистых участков. Ведь в природе камнеломка растет на обедненных почвах, плотно сбитых песчаниках с глиноземами, щебенистых склонах. Поэтому самое важное условие для камнеломок, которое надо соблюсти при выращивании в садах, отличный дренаж и умеренная влажность. В зависимости от места происхождения тот или иной вид камнеломки может по-разному относиться к освещению. Некоторые любят открытые места, другие переносят легкое притенение. Общей рекомендацией к освещению камнеломок может быть такая: освещение должно быть обеспечено большую часть времени. Также есть некоторые виды, устойчивые к переувлажнению почв, но лучше беречь камнеломки от избытка влаги. Луговые камнеломки (например, камнеломка гипнумовая) растут хорошо только на кислых почвах, альпийские и горные камнеломки любят щелочные или нейтральные грунты.

Камнеломки растут в виде розеток, образуют густые или рыхлые дернинки. Цвести разные виды начинают с мая по август. Цветение отдельных видов камнеломок продолжается в течение 30 дней. Зимуют растения в основном без укрытия, но некоторые цветоводы рекомендуют мульчировать их на зиму листьями или соломой.

Славянск - камнеломкаПрименяют камнеломки в основном для многолетних альпинариев и рокариев, для декорирования подпорных стенок, некоторые виды камнеломок применяют для выгонки, в бутылочных садиках, или просто как горшечные комнатные растения.

 
Камнеломка Арендса Saxifraga x arendsii относится к
мохообразным камнеломкам и входит в группу сложных садовых гибридов,
появившихся в начале ХХ в. Зимостойкое почвопокровное многолетнее
растение высотой 5-20см. Образует очень декоративные полусферические
густые «шапки» ажурных листьев. При благоприятных условиях разрастается
очень быстро. Омолаживают делением раз в 4-5 лет. При недостаточной
влажности после цветения в густой «шапке» листвы могут образовываться
некрасивые черные «проплешины». В течение лета проплешины зарастают
сами, в наиболее заметных местах можно провести подсадку молодых
растений.
 
Разрастаются и смыкаются камнеломки быстро. Камнеломка Арендса
Saxifraga x arendsii не требует частых пересадок. В отдельные годы
происходит частичное выпревание покрова из камнеломок, особенно
мохообразных.
 
Цветение: Цветет камнеломка Арендса Saxifraga x arendsii в
мае. Цвета: красный, розовый, белый. Условия: Солнце/полутень, рыхлые
плодородные умеренно влажные почвы. Уход: Специального ухода не требует.
Не допускать пересыхания почвы. Опрыскивать в засуху. Для возвращения
декоративности после цветения аккуратно «выламывают» у основания
засохшие цветоносы.
 
Размножение: Размножают делением розеток или
черенкованием в начале лета после цветения. Все камнеломки также
размножаются семенами. Семена мелкие, поэтому их лучше высевать в ящик с
последующей пикировкой. Сеянцы зацветают на второй год. При размножении
черенками для лучшего укоренения необходимы легкое притенение и
обильный полив и опрыскивание в первое время.
 
К концу сезона у
посаженных черенков образуется густая мочка корней, и на следующий год
весной растения можно смело caжать на постоянное место. Использование:
Рокарий, альпийская горка, подпорная стенка. Очень хорошо и естественно
камнеломка Арендса Saxifraga x arendsii смотрится в нишах между камнями.
Расстояние при посадке около 20см.
 
Камнеломки используют обычно
как почвопокровные или ковровые растения, а также для рокариев и
миксбордеров, в бордюрах парков, скверов, бульваров.
 
Пусть садовые многолетники радуют Вас своей красотой!

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