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Крупка

Невысокие подушковидные формы крупки позволяют так же успешно противостоять холодным ветрам даже в малоснежные зимы на больших высотах. Листья крупок чаще всего плотные, кожистые, мелкие, линейные, опушенные, собраны в розетки. Стебли восходящие, укороченные, простые или разветвленные. Цветки у большинства крупок желтые или белые, период цветения приходится на весенние месяцы. Возможно и повторное цветение гораздо позже, летом и даже осенью, но не такое обильное.

Многие виды крупок можно смело отнести к идеальным почвопокровным растениям для альпинария. Уже на раннем этапе своего развития небольшая куртинка выглядит очень привлекательно, и не только во время цветения. Постепенно она разрастается, формирует плотную подушку, а затем и ровное ковровое покрытие. Яркая зелень, свойственная большинству крупок, выглядит эффектно и очень естественно на фоне камней. Обильное цветение придает растению еще большее очарование, но по его окончании цветоносы рекомендуют удалить. Таким образом Вы поможете растению сохранить привлекательность и сберечь силы для повторного цветения.

Медленно растущие виды требуют особого внимания со стороны цветовода при выборе места на горке. Слишком активные “соседи” могут заметно угнетать их развитие, сильное затенение или обильный полив также сказываются отрицательно. Размножаются крупки вегетативно, а также посевом семян весной или под зиму.

Славянск - крупка фотоКрупка вечнозеленая (Draba aizoides L.) растет на
известняковых и доломитовых склонах гор в Западной и Восточной Европе.
Достигает в высоту 5—10 см. образуя густые, низкие вечнозеленые заросли
яркого зеленого цвета. Листья собраны в розетку, откуда вырастает
короткий стебель, на котором в кисти появляются в марте—апреле желтые
цветки. Этот неприхотливый вид развивается в любом грунте, однако лучше в
бедной почве. Размножается семенами или побегами. Семена быстро
выпадают, поэтому собирают их постепенно, по мере созревания. Высевают в
апреле в проницаемую, щебнистую почву. Сеянцы рассаживают в ящички или
цветочные горшки. В грунт высаживают хорошо укоренившуюся рассаду.
Побегами растение может размножаться в июне—августе. На постоянное место
высаживают весной или в конце лета, чтобы до прихода зимы растение
укоренилось и окрепло. Высаживают в гравий, в цветочные каменные стенки,
на сухое и солнечное место, в мини-альпинарии.

Крупка ворсистоплодная (Draba lasiocarpa Rochel,
синоним Draba aizoon Wahlenb.) достигает в высоту 5—15 см. Встречается в
Карпатах, на Балканском полуострове; похожа на крупку вечнозеленую,
хотя у крупки ворсистоплодной более крупные листья. Цветки желтые;
цветет в апреле. Развивается в легкой, песчаной, порой каменистой почве,
содержащей достаточное количество кальция, на сухом и солнечном месте.
Размножается семенами или вегетативным путем. В альпинариях используют
на небольших участках.

Крупка сибирская [Draba sibirica (Pall.) Thell.,
синоним Draba repens M. В.) родом с Кавказа, Сибири, Дальнего Востока.
Это стелющееся растение, образует негустые ковровые заросли высотой 10
см. Цветет в апреле—мае желтыми цветками. После цветения рекомендуют
кисти срезать. Уход за этим видом такой же, как и за прежде описанным.

Крупка махровая (Draba tomentosa Clairv.) растет в
на сухих известняковых скалах и ложбинах. В высоту достигает 10 см:
цветет белыми цветами с мая до июня. Стебли и листья покрыты длинными,
одиночными ворсинками. Растет на известковой почве, на сухом, солнечном
месте, переносит солнцепек. Размножается семенами или вегетативным
путем. Растение неприхотливо, требуется такой же уход, как за крупкой
сибирской.

Месторасположение и почва. Светолюбивы, засухоустойчивы. Требуют открытых солнечных мест, некоторые выды выносят полутень. Предпочитают суглинистые, супесчаные, каменистые, водопроницаемые почвы, содержащие гумус. Застой влаги в почве для них губителен.

Размножается делением куста и семенами. При выращивании из семян зацветают на второй год, при ранневесеннем посеве иногда в первый год. Куртинку образуют на 3-4 год. Сложностей в проращивании семян нет. Подушковидные формы имеют стержневой корень, но осторожную пересадку переносят легко.

Используются крупка как почвопокрывные растения для каменистых горок. Крупку следует сажать большими группами и не объединять с другими растениями. Более крупные и быстрее разрастающиеся соседи легко ее подавляют.  

Пусть садовые растения радуют Вас своей красотой!

 

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