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Мединилла — выращивание и уход

Славянск - мединиллаМединилла великолепная Medinilla magnifica — крупный кустарник
до 2 м высотой. Древеснеющие побеги имеют четырехгранную форму, листья
крупные, супротивно расположенные, до 30 см длиной, овальной формы.
Поверхность листа гладкая, сверху темно-зеленая, с более светлыми
жилками, слегка волнистая по краю. Нижняя сторона листа более светлая.
Розовые цветки собраны в многоцветковое кистевидное соцветие. Соцветия
поникающие, могут достигать полуметра длиной, имеют крупные розовые
прицветники.
Семейство меластомовых. Родина Африка, о. Мадагаскар, о-ва Малайского архипелага.
Это требовательное к условиям выращивания растение не получило широкого распространения среди цветоводов,
но пользуется любовью у ценителей экзотических растений. В природе известно около 400 видов рода мединилла,
представленных кустарниками и лианами, в культуре распространен только один вид.

Славянск - medinilla.jpgМединилла любит повышенную влажность воздуха, поэтому растение и
воздух вокруг него желательно опрыскивать несколько раз в день (а лучше
поместить в зимнем саду увлажнитель воздуха).
Горшок с мединиллой полезно установить на поддон с влажной галькой, чтобы оттуда постоянно испарялась вода.

Поскольку мединилла в природе может жить как эпифит, ей не нужно
много земли: для успешного роста достаточно небольшого горшка. Но
субстрат обязательно должен быть хорошо дренированным; на дне горшка
поместите дренаж.
Молодые растения нужно пересаживать ежегодно, взрослые – через 2-3 года с ежегодной заменой верхнего слоя земли в горшке.
Специалисты советуют составлять для пересадки мединиллы смесь дерновой,
листовой, торфяной, перегнойной земли и песка в пропорции (2:2:1:1:1).

Вне периода покоя любит мединилла жидкие минеральные подкормки (2-4
раза в месяц), отвечая на это очень декоративным внешним видом и
закладкой множества цветоносов. Несколько раз за лето полезно
подкормить мединиллу и органическими удобрениями.

Недостаток света, недостаточная влажность воздуха, неправильный
полив, низкая температура содержания, неочищенная известковая или
хлорированная вода для полива, сквозняки, смена местоположения перед
цветением – эти негативные факторы могут стать для мединиллы причиной
потери листьев и цветочных почек.

После цветения сильно разросшуюся мединиллу подрезают. Полученные черенки можно попробовать укоренить.

Зааботливый уход за этим растением является гарантией того, что
ежегодно в конце весны и в первую половину лета можно будет любоваться
незабываемым зрелищем — цветением мединиллы!

Славянск - мединиллаМединиллы издавна выращиваются в оранжерейных условиях.
Для
этого крупного растения нужно много места — ведь лишь на достаточном
пространстве можно насладиться всеми прелестями мединиллы.

Чаще всего в зимних садах культивируют следующие виды мединиллы:

1. Мединилла прекрасная ( Medinilla magnifica) расцветает поздней весной и радует своим цветением более двух месяцев.
Мединилла прекрасная в природных условиях часто селится на других
растениях и ведёт себя как эпифит. Встречаются прямостоячие и вьющиеся
особи.

На
родине соцветия мединиллы прекрасной достигают метровой длины, и на
растении одновременно может развиться десять таких соцветий. Поистине
феерическое зрелище!

В оранжерейных условиях кусты мединиллы значительно скромнее размерами, но не менее прекрасны.
Мединилла прекрасная относится к одним из самых красивоцветущих растений мира.

2. Мединилла жилковатая ( Medinilla venosa, или M. Venosus,
или M. farinose hort.) – полуэпифитный кустарник с густо опушёнными
побегами. Зелёные удлинённо-эллиптические жилковатые листья (длиной до
20 см, шириной до 8 см) заострены на верхушке; листья сидят на коротких
черешках. Немногочисленные розовато-жёлтые цветки собраны в
зонтиковидное соцветие.

СОВЕТЫ
ПО УХОДУ

Температура: Хорошо развивается
только в тепле, оптимальная температура 22-23°C,
не ниже 16°C зимой. Не переносит сквозняков и резких перепадов температур.

Славянск - medinilla_magnifica.jpgОсвещение:
Летом притенение от прямых солнечных лучей, зимой хорошее освещение.
Мединилла теневыносливое растение, но для хорошего цветения нужно
достаточно света.

Полив:
Обильный во время цветения весной — в начале лета, затем с середины
лета до начала осени — умеренный, зимой во время периода покоя — более
редкий, только после того, как почва основательно просохнет. Для полива
используют только мягкую, хорошо отстоянную воду комнатной температуры
или теплую.

Удобрение: С марта по июль
через каждые две недели подкармливают специальным удобрением для цветущих комнатных
растений.

Влажность воздуха: Мединилла любит очень
влажный воздух, требуется регулярное опрыскивание и обмывание листьев.
Оптимальная влажность воздуха 80-90%. Старайтесь избегать попадания воды при опрыскивании на цветки.

Пересадка:
Весной — в марте, когда горшок станет тесен. Почва — покупная смесь для
эпифитов или смесь 3 части листовой земли, 1 часть торфяной и 1 часть
песка, а также можно добавить рубленый мох сфагнум. Хороший дренаж
обязателен.

Размножение: Весной при пересадке срезают черенки, которые укореняют с применением фитогормонов и при почвенном подогреве до 30°C.

После цветения мединиллы на месте опылённых цветков образуются плоды-ягоды.
Созревшие свежесобранные семена можно использовать для размножения,
высевая их в лёгкую смесь (например, листовой земли и песка).

Вегетативно мединилла размножается черенками, срезаемыми с растения
весной и в начале лета, а также корневыми отпрысками и отводками.
Для успешного укоренения черенков мединиллы требуется высокая температура (около 30 градусов) и повышенная влажность воздуха.
Каждый отводок и черенок мединиллы, обработанный фитогормонами,
укореняют в отдельном маленьком горшочке. В качестве субстрата для
укоренения используют лёгкую питательную смесь (например, рубленый
сфагнум и песок).
Поместите укореняемый черенок и молодое растение в мини-тепличку для
создания благоприятного микроклимата – до тех пор, пока позволяют
небольшие размеры мединиллы.

Во время пересадки, которую желательно проводить в сроки с конца
февраля по начало апреля, мединиллу разросшуюся за год можно обрезать.
Срезают ветки до старой древесины, делая разрез сразу над листом.
Срезанные стебли можно использовать на черенки, которые удобнее
укоренять в комнатной тепличке.
 
Главные требования такого нежного тропического растения как мединилла —
это высокая влажность воздуха (минимум 75%), постоянно теплое
содержание (не ниже 16 °C) и яркое рассеянное освещение. Так же
мединила не любит когда ее переставляют с места на место, особенно во
время цветения, и даже когда просто поворачивают на окне.
 
Лучшее место для выращивания мединиллы это конечно оранжерея, в
комнатных условиях оптимальные условия можно попытаться создать, если
установить дополнительно на окне третью раму, загораживающую растение
от жаркого сухого воздуха батарей и позволяющей поддерживать влажную
атмосферу вокруг растения. Однако, следует учитывать крупные размеры
мединиллы и проводить ежегодную обрезку.

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