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Пахира

Славянск - пахираПахира является экзотическим растением семейства бомбаксовых (или баобабовых, хлебное дерево — её ближайший родственник) родом из Мексики, Перу и Бразилии. В роду 2 вида растения. Природная естественная среда обитания  – каменистые пустыни, поэтому
цветок запасает воду в полости между корой и древесиной нижних частей
стеблей.
В непривычных комнатных условиях рост пахиры достаточно медленный,
но  достигает высоты до 3-х метров при диаметре кроны 1,5м.

Чаще всего
молодая пахира растет в один ствол, а ветвиться начинает при высоте
более 2м. Расположенные на длинных черенках листья имеют ярко-зеленую
окраску, а по форме напоминают листья каштана. Цветет пахира только в
естественной среде, имея облиственную крону.

Цветы, конечно, необычайно красивые, огромные, белые, собранные в
соцветие-метелку. Плодами являются одревесневелые овальные ягоды цвета
оливы достаточно большого размера, семена которых употребляют в пищу в
сыром или жареном виде.

Виды:

Славянск - Пахира уходПахира водная (Pachira aquatica Aubl.).
Родина — тропики Южной Америки. За форму листьев растение называют еще
гвианским или малабарским каштаном. Пахиру водную можно встретить под
названием бутылочное дерево. Растение имеет характерное утолщение
нижней части стебля, размеры и состояние которого в некоторой степени
зависят от условий содержания. Внутри утолщения находится полость, в
которой накапливается вода, при отсутствии полива растение может
расходовать запасы влаги, поэтому пахира вполне может перенести
некоторую пересушку земляного кома, но очень плохо переносит избыточный
полив. В комнатных условиях растет достаточно медленно, но вырастает
до 2,5-3 м, при этом диаметр кроны составит 1,5 м. Молодые растения
растут в один ствол и начинают ветвиться обычно когда достигнут высоты
более 2 м. Пахира имеет пальчато-сложные кожистые листья темно-зеленого
цвета. В комнатных условиях цветет редко. Цветки белые или желтоватые,
собраны в крупное (до 35 см длины) метельчатое соцветие. Плоды —
одревесневающие вытянуто-округлые ягоды оливкового цвета длиной
10-25см, содержащие округлые семена, которые едят сырыми или жареными.

Уход за растением:

Цветение: в комнатных условиях редко.

Рост: медленный.

Свет: яркий рассеянный.

Температура: умеренная (20-25°C) в
весенне-летний период. Зимой оптимальная температура содержания
14-16°C, в этих условиях растение не вытягивается.

Полив: весной и летом умеренный, верхний
слой почвы должен подсохнуть к следующему поливу. С октября по февраль
полив редкий, однако без длительной пересушки земляного кома.

Влажность воздуха: не играет существенной
роли. Растение способно хорошо переносить сухой воздух комнат, однако
благодарно отзывается на регулярное опрыскивание мягкой отстоянной
водой два раза в день.

Подкормка: с апреля по август раз в 3-4
недели вносят комплексное минеральное удобрение в нормальной
(рекомендованной производителем) дозе. В осенне-зимний период без
подкормок.

Обрезка: в весеннее время можно аккуратно
обрезать тянущиеся вверх ветви. В месте среза пахира разветвляется и
крона становится более густой

Период покоя: с октября по февраль. Держат в светлом месте. Полив редкий, оптимальная температура содержания 14-16°C.

Славянск - Пахира уходПересадка: весной, в молодом возрасте ежегодно, старые растения пересаживают через 2-3 года.

Размножение: семенами при почвенном подогреве, с температурой 25-27°C, черенками.

Пахира нуждается в хорошем освещении, иначе стебель вытягивается и
растение теряет декоративность. Может переносить некоторое количество
прямых солнечных лучей, но предпочитает яркий рассеянный свет.
Хорошо растет на восточном и западном окне. На южном окне потребуется
притенение в самые жаркие полученные часы. Летом растение можно
поместить в саду в защищенном от ветра, прямых солнечных лучей и дождя
месте.
Если в осенне-зимний период светлых дней было мало, то, весной, при
увеличении солнечного света, растения следует приучать постепенно к
большему освещению, во избежание солнечного ожога. Весной при ярком
солнце возможны ожоги листьев, особенно это опасно для экземпляров, не
привыкших к прямым солнечным лучам.

Пахира предпочитает умеренную (20-25°C) температуру в весенне-летний
период. Зимой оптимальная температура содержания 14-16°C, в этих
условиях растение не вытягивается, поливают его редко. Растение не
рекомендуется размещать рядом с батареями центрального отопления.
Следите за сквозняками, особенно в зимнее время — от них пахира может
заболеть.

Поливать пахиру нужно по диаметру горшка, избегая попадания воды в
основание стволов, либо использовать нижний полив. Полив весной и летом
умеренный, верхний слой почвы должен подсохнуть к следующему поливу. С
октября по февраль полив редкий, однако без длительной пересушки
земляного кома. Вода для полива должна быть мягкой и теплой. При
недостатке полива листья пахиры теряют тургор и повисают. При избыточном
поливе стебель может загнить.

Влажность воздуха не играет существенной роли. Растение способно
хорошо переносить сухой воздух комнат, однако благодарно отзывается на
регулярное опрыскивание мягкой отстоянной водой два раза в день, при
этом надо следить, чтобы на стволы не попадало слишком много влаги.
Переувлажнение стволов может привести к их загниванию.

В период с апреля по август раз в 3-4 недели вносят комплексное
минеральное удобрение в нормальной (рекомендованной производителем)
дозе. В осенне-зимний период без подкормок.

Весной пахиру можно подстригать, аккуратно обрезая тянущиеся вверх
ветви. В месте среза пахира разветвляется и крона становится более
густой. Обычно кроне пахиры стараются придать форму шара или овала.

Славянск - Пахира уходПересаживают пахиру весной, ежегодно в молодом возрасте, старые
растения пересаживают через 2-3 года. Емкость для посадки берут не
глубокую, но достаточно широкую, в диаметре на 4-5 см больше предыдущей.
Корни у пахиры располагаются не глубоко, поэтому растение, посаженное в
слишком глубокий горшок, болеет и плохо растет.
Субстрат составляют из дерновой, листовой земли и песка (1:1:1), с
добавлением кирпичной крошки и древесного угля. Можно использовать
универсальный грунт для пальм и драцен. Хороший дренаж обязателен.

Размножают семенами ранней весной, или черенками в августе.

Пахира довольно легко размножается семенами при почвенном подогреве,
с температурой 25-27°C. Семена должны быть свежими, так как всхожесть
их при хранении снижается. Семена насыпают в широкую плошку, почти не
присыпая землей, и опрыскивают теплой водой. Плошку накрывают стеклом
или полиэтиленовым пакетом, периодически проветривая и протирая от
образовавшихся капель воды. Семена всходят в течение 3 недель.

Пахиру можно размножать черенками, срезаемыми обязательно с пяткой, в
конце лета. Условия укоренения — тепло и высокая влажность.

Возможные трудности:

Загнивание ствола и корней — при избыточном либо неправильном (вода
часто попадала на ствол) поливе, особенно в холодное время года.

Коричневые кончики или края листьев — слишком сухой воздух, холодные сквозняки или недостаточный полив.

Листья скрученные, мягкие с коричневыми краями — слишком низкая
температура, возможно днем тепло, а ночью температура опускается ниже
нормы.

При недостатке освещения, если пахира размещена далеко от окна, стебель вытягивается и «бутылочное» утолщение почти теряется.

Светлые сухие пятна на листьях — слишком интенсивное освещение или
солнечные ожоги. Пахире нужно притенение от прямых солнечных лучей в
полдень, летом.

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  180. I am from India. I did my Engineering in Computer Science. I had a made a poor career choice and regretting now.. . I am currently working as a Senior Software Engineer in one of the software firms.. . I wish to do MS in USA. But I dont want to do it in anything related to Computer Science.. . I am more interested in English Literature or Psychology or Medicine related courses…. . Can a computer Science student do such Master degree courses in USA?.

  181. How can I change to fluid width in the New Blogger Template Designer?

  182. I am from India. I did my Engineering in Computer Science. I had a made a poor career choice and regretting now.. . I am currently working as a Senior Software Engineer in one of the software firms.. . I wish to do MS in USA. But I dont want to do it in anything related to Computer Science.. . I am more interested in English Literature or Psychology or Medicine related courses…. . Can a computer Science student do such Master degree courses in USA?.

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