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Родиола розовая

Славянск - Родиола розоваяРодиола розовая — многолетнее травянистое растение семейства толстянковых (Crassulaceae).
Корневище толстое, с тонкими придаточными корнями, буроватое, цвета
бронзы или старинной позолоты со своеобразным перламутровым блеском. От
этой окраски и происходит народное название “золотой корень”. Вес
многолетнего корневища может достигать 500-800 г и более. Стебли
многочисленные (до 10-15 шт.), реже одиночные, прямостоячие,
неветвистые, обычно высотой 10-40 см. Листья сидячие,
продолговато-яйцевидные, эллиптические или почти ланцетовидные,
заостренные, в верхней части по краю пильчато-зубчатые. Соцветие
щитковидное, многоцветковое.
Цветки однополые, чашелистники
желто-зеленые, лепестки желтые. В мужских цветках тычинки длиннее
лепестков.
Плоды — прямостоячие зеленоватые листовки. Цветет в июне — июле, плоды
созревают в июле — августе. Размножается вегетативно (отрезками
корневищ). Меньшее значение имеет семенное размножение, но семенная
продуктивность высокая — один генеративный побег дает до 900 семян.
Произрастает в горах Алтая, Восточной Сибири, на Урале, Дальнем Востоке.
Чаще родиола розовая встречается рассеянно в северо-восточном Алтае в
гольцовом поясе на границах высот от 1500 до 2500 м над уровнем моря,
где можно найти ее массовые заросли. Так, в Прителецком районе
попадаются участки, где на 1 га насчитывается до 60 тыс. экземпляров
золотого корня. С этой площади можно собрать более 1500 кг корневищ. В
условиях средней полосы Европы дает две вегетации. Требовательное к
влаге растение, нуждается в обильном, но проточном увлажнении, и менее
требовательно к теплу и свету. Растение включено в Красную книгу РСФСР.

Растение по своим лечебным свойствам мало в чем уступает женьшеню.
Уже много веков родиола розовая применяется в народной медицине Алтая
как средство, повышающее умственную и физическую работоспособность.
Издавна в народе говорят: “Тот, кто сыщет золотой корень, будет до конца
своих дней удачлив и здоров, проживет два века”.

СБОР И СУШКА СЫРЬЯ

Славянск - Родиола розоваяОсновным лекарственным сырьем являются корневища с корнями, которые
заготавливают с конца цветения до конца вегетации растения. В целях
обеспечения восстановления зарослей повторная заготовка корневищ на
одном и том же месте допустима лишь через 10-15 лет. Не подлежат
заготовке молодые растения с 1-2 стеблями.

Выкопанные корневища с корнями очищают от земли, моют в проточной
воде, очищают от старой, бурой пробки, загнивших частей и раскладывают в
тени для провяливания. Затем корневище разрезают поперек на куски
длиной 2-10 см и сушат в сушилках при температуре 50-60°C (сушить на
солнце не разрешается). Срок годности сырья 3 года. Запах сырья
специфический, несколько напоминающий запах розы, вкус
горьковато-вяжущий.

ФАРМАКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ СВОЙСТВА

Препараты родиолы обладают выраженным стимулирующим свойством,
существенно увеличивают объем динамической и статической работы.
Особенно заметно повышается работоспособность при использовании
препаратов на фоне утомления и при выполнении тяжелой работы. При этом
родиола розовая нормализует обменные процессы, способствует экономичному
расходованию энергетических ресурсов и быстрому их ресинтезу, улучшает
энергетический обмен в мышцах и мозге за счет окислительных процессов,
сопряженных с фосфорилированием, более ранним использованием в качестве
субстратов окисления не только углеводов, но и липидов.

Препараты родиолы оказывают стимулирующее действие на умственную
работоспособность человека, несколько улучшают память и внимание.

ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ В МЕДИЦИНЕ

Подземная часть. Спиртовой экстракт применяется в качестве средства,
стимулирующего центральную нервную систему, при астенических и
неврастенических состояниях, повышенной утомляемости, пониженной
работоспособности, вегетативно-сосудистой дистонии, при функциональных
заболеваниях нервной системы. По стимулирующему действию превосходит
элеутерококк. В тибетской медицине — при сердечно-сосудистых и
желудочно-кишечных заболеваниях. В монгольской медицине — при
туберкулезе легких, переломах костей, кожных заболеваниях; как
жаропонижающее, общеукрепляющее; наружно (в виде примочек, мази) — для
лечения ран. В народной медицине отвар, настойка — при метро- и
меноррагиях, диарее, лихорадках, головной боли, цинге, для снятия
усталости и повышения работоспособности, при респираторных инфекциях,
при подагре (как диуретическое), сахарном диабете, скрофулезе,
заболеваниях желудка, анемии, туберкулезе легких, болезнях печени,
зубной боли, импотенции. Наружно (припарки, примочки) — при
конъюнктивитах, нарывах, кожных сыпях; для смазывания десен — при
пиорее. Сок — раноочищающее; при желтухе.

Надземная часть. Отвар, примочки — при трахоме.

ЛЕКАРСТВЕННЫЕ ФОРМЫ, СПОСОБ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ И ДОЗЫ

Экстракт родиолы жидкий (Extractum Rhodiolae fluidum) принимают по 5-10
капель 2-3 раза в день за 15-30 мин до еды. Курс лечения — 10-20 дней. В
психиатрической практике назначают, начиная с 10 капель 2-3 раза в
день, затем дозу постепенно увеличивают до 30-40 капель на прием.
Длительность лечения — 1-2 месяца. Экстракт хранят в прохладном,
защищенном от света месте.

♦ Настойка корневищ с корнями родиолы: 50 г измельченного сырья
заливают 500 мл 40% спирта и 2 недели настаивают в темном теплом месте.
Принимают по 20-30 капель 3 раза в день за 30 мин до еды. Лицам,
склонным к повышенному артериальному давлению, в первую неделю лечения
следует принимать по 5 капель 3 раза в день. При благоприятном течении
лечения дозу увеличивают до 10 капель на прием.

♦ Настой корневищ с корнями родиолы: 10 г измельченного сырья
заливают 200 мл кипятка, настаивают 4 ч, затем процеживают. Принимают по
1/2 стакана 2-3 раза в день.

ПРОТИВОПОКАЗАНИЯ И ВОЗМОЖНЫЕ ПОБОЧНЫЕ ЭФФЕКТЫ: резко выраженное
возбуждение, гипертонический криз, лихорадочные состояния. При появлении
признаков возбуждения, бессонницы и головной боли прием препаратов
родиолы прекращают.

ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ В ДРУГИХ ОБЛАСТЯХ

Подземная часть используется в пищевой промышленности для изготовления
безалкогольных тонизирующих напитков. Применяется для дубления кожи и
окраски тканей. Надземная часть — в пищу как салат.

ЭЛЕМЕНТЫ АГРОТЕХНИКИ ВОЗДЕЛЫВАНИЯ

Родиола предпочитает плодородные, легкие по механическому составу почвы,
так как на тяжелых глинистых и сильно переувлажненных подгнивают корни и
слабо нарастает корневище. Размножают ее отрезками корневища с корнями,
с 2-3 почками возобновления (деление корневища проводят в апреле или в
конце июля) и посевом семян. Семена высевают поверхностно рано весной,
на постоянное место сеянцы высаживают в двухлетнем возрасте. Корневище
не заглубляют, почки возобновления должны быть на уровне почвы. Уход в
течение вегетации растений сводится к рыхлению почвы и прополке
сорняков. Хорошие результаты дает подкормка навозной жижей,
предварительно перебродившей в течение 5-6 дней и разбавленной водой в
3-4 раза.

Урожайность подземных органов в естественных условиях произрастания —
в среднем 270 кг/га. Масса одного корня — до 100 г (иногда до 2 кг).

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