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Садовые ступени

Удивительно украшают сад низкие кирпичные ступени, ведущие вверх по склону. Такие ступени можно соорудить не только в огромном саду, но и в самом маленьком, например, сделать кирпичную лестницу, ведущую в приподнятое над землей патио. В нашем случае периметр ступеней выложен из кирпича, а их проступи  —  из искусственных каменных плит, которые хорошо контрастируют с красным кирпичом по цвету и фактуре. Ступени начинаются от края простой дорожки из кирпичных секций, засыпанных утрамбованным гравием.

Вверх по ступеням

На сооружение этих достаточно простых ступеней вам потребуется не более одного – двух дней.Кирпичи кладут на строительный раствор поверх бетонного фундамента, и если откос в вашем саду не круче того, что изображен на фотографии, каждая ступень может быть высотой в лежачий кирпич, то есть в его толщину. Проступи сделаны здесь из искусственных каменных плит. В более строгой по стилю лестнице можно сделать их из кирпичей.

Прежде чем приступить к сооружению ступеней, вам нужно измерить угол их наклона. Это можно сделать, соорудив простой профиль из двух досок. Одной доской отмеряют общую длину ступеней, а второй  —  общую глубину лестницы. Доски прибивают под прямым углом друг к другу. Если, например, общая длина ступеней окажется равной 1,2 м, а общая глубина  —  600 мм, то очень легко подсчитать, что для лестницы вам нужно будет соорудить три ступени 400 мм глубиной и 200 мм высотой каждая.

В нашем случае на пологом склоне потребовалось соорудить четыре ступени шириной 900 мм, высотой 80 мм с поступями глубиной 360 мм. Во всем сооружении были использованы обычные красные кирпичи. Если вы захотите заменить плиты кирпичами, сделайте это из расчета шесть кирпичей на каждую проступь. Поскольку для этого сооружения требуется минимальное количество бетона и строительного раствора, была использована готовая сухая смесь. Если вы хотите приготовить смесь самостоятельно, возьмите 10 кг цемента на 30 кг мягкого песка для строительного раствора, а для бетона  —  1 0 кг цемента, 30 кг песка и 30 кг щебня.

Решите, откуда будут начинаться ступени, где они будут заканчиваться и сколько ступеней вам нужно будет соорудить, а затем сделайте разметку на склоне колышками и бечевой. Сначала разметьте две нижние ступени, а затем с помощью длинного уровня или ровной доски проверьте верхний уровень второй ступени. Расстояние между колышками должно составлять 360 мм по ширине (ширина каменной плиты), а верхний край второй ступени должен находиться на высоте 160 мм от нижнего края лестницы.

Еще раз проверьте установку колышков, убедитесь, что они расположены под прямым углом друг к другу, и выкопайте траншею, предназначенную для нижней ступени. Наибольшей будет глубина около задней стенки траншеи – 150 мм. Передний край траншеи будет углублен в почву всего на 75 мм. Обратите внимание на то, что эти размеры условны и могут меняться в зависимости от особенностей склона в вашем саду. Не забудьте внести поправки в свои вычисления.

Проверьте, чтобы земля на дне траншеи была хорошо утрамбована, и только после этого начинайте укладывать ступени. Замесите строительный раствор и уложите на него два кирпича с каждой стороны и три по переднему краю ступени. Постоянно проверяйте уровень кладки.

Заполните траншею 60-мм слоем гравия и хорошо утрамбуйте поверхность кувалдой или трамбовкой. Гравийная подушка обеспечит дренаж сооружения.

Присыпьте фундамент строительным песком так, чтобы прикрыть им все пустоты в гравийной подушке. Хорошо утрамбуйте, а затем сверху положите плиты.

После того, как вы проверили уровень плит и убедились в том, что они расположены заподлицо с кирпичами, залейте строительным раствором полость позади плит, утрамбуйте и выровняйте поверхность раствора.

Прежде чем заполнить швы строительным раствором, уложите передний ряд кирпичей, образующих приступок второй ступени. Заполните строительным раствором все щели между кирпичами и плитами и прогладьте швы мастерком. Снимите излишки раствора, пока тот не начал застывать.

Выкопайте траншею позади первой ступени и повторите шаги 3-7. Когда будет сооружена вторая ступень, выройте траншею под третью ступень и продолжайте сооружать лестницу, как было описано выше. На заднем краю самой верхней ступени уложите последний ряд из четырех кирпичей, как было описано в шаге 7.

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