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Спараксис

Славянск - спараксис Спараксис (Sparaxis) включает 6 видов
луковичных листопадных растений. Цветки собраны
в колосовидные соцветия по 3-6, расцветают в конце весны — начале
лета. Спараксис луковиценосный (Sparaxis bulbifera)
вид высотой 50 см, с ремневидными листьями и воронковидными
желтыми или бело-желтыми цветками.
Из растений вида спараксис душистый (S. fragrans) выращивают
в основном разновидность спараксис душистый крупноцветковый (S. fragransgrandiflora), высотой
60 см, с различной окраской цветков: белой, желтой, пурпурной.
У сорта ‘Полосчатый’ — белые цветки с желтой сердцевиной интенсивной
окраски.
Спараксис трехцветный (S. tricolor) — вид
высотой 40-50 см. Листья мечевидные (в форме шпаги), такой же длины, что и
цветоносный стебель, на котором образуются плоские белые, желтые, красные или
пурпурные цветки. Существует множество разновидностей и сортов с цветками разной
окраски, они продаются чаще в смесях.

Спараксис предпочитает солнечные, защищенные от ветра места с хорошо
дренированной, богатой питательными веществами почвой. Но надо учесть,
что растение это теплолюбивое и лучше зимует в мягком южном климате, на
севере же нередко вымерзает. После увядания листьев (примерно в
середине июля) клубнелуковицы выкапывают, просушивают и хранят в
проветриваемом помещении до посадки. Высаживают в октябре на глубину
8–10 см, оставляя расстояние между растениями 10–15 см. На зиму посадки
утепляют, мульчируя слоем торфа или сухих листьев.

Чтобы не рисковать, в средней полосе России и севернее клубнелуковицы
высаживают весной на глубину 5 см. Перед первыми осенними заморозками
растения выкапывают. Высушивают и хранят всю зиму в сухом субстрате
(торфе, опилках, мху) при температуре 5–8°С.

 

Размножение

Размножают спараксис, разделяя клубнелуковицы при выкопке. Растения, выращенные из семян, зацветают на 2-й год. Семена сеют в августе-сентябре или в марте в контейнеры, заполненные
семенным почвогрунтом, которые держат в закрытом прохладном
помещении. Сеянцы прореживают, а затем осенью высаживают в
грунт. Размножают также отделением осенью-зимой от материнских
луковиц деток, которые сразу же высаживают на постоянное место
посадки. В том и другом случае растения зацветают через 2-3
года.

В продаже можно встретить смесь сортов спараксиса трехцветного (высота
растений 25–30 см) или спараксиса изящного с белыми или оранжевыми
цветками высотой около 15 см.

Спараксис вряд ли удастся успешно выращивать в домашних условиях. Но он
вполне годится для выгонки. Чтобы получить цветущие растения в зимнее
время, клубнелуковицы осенью высаживают в горшочки со смесью земли и
песка по несколько штук, накрывают пленкой от пересушивания и помещают
в подвал или нижнее отделение холодильника на несколько месяцев. Все
это время надо следить, чтобы субстрат в горшках не пересыхал или,
наоборот, не покрылся плесенью от излишней сырости. По необходимости
посадки надо поливать и проветривать, приподнимая пленку. Как только
появятся первые ростки, горшки переносят в максимально светлое и по
возможности прохладное место (подоконник, утепленная лоджия). Через
некоторое время появятся цветоносы.

 

Различные виды рода Спараксис выращивают в открытом грунте в
бордюрах и клумбах, в качестве цветов на срезку либо в горшках
на балконах и террасах. Их высаживают на постоянное место осенью,
в хорошо дренированную плодородную почву, супесчаную или суглинистую,
закапывая клубнелуковицы на глубину 10 см.

При посадке в бордюрах соблюдают расстояние между растениями
10-15 см друг от друга, а на грядках в качестве цветов на срезку
— 40-50 см.
Для выращивания в горшках сажают в конце лета по 5-6 клубнелуковиц
в горшок, заполненный смешанным почвогрунтом (земля, торф и песок
с добавлением 30 г полного минерального удобрения на ведро).
После цветения в конце июня, когда листья начинают желтеть, рекомендуется
извлечь клубнелуковицы из грунта или горшка, просушить и хранить
в сухом помещении до следующей посадки в грунт, это можно сделать
даже и через несколько лет. Весной-летом, раз в 20-30 дней (только
при выращивании в горшках и в малоплодородной почве) в воду для
полива добавляют комплексное минеральное удобрение в количестве
10 г на ведро.

Температура не должна опускаться ниже 7 °С. Оптимальная для роста
и развития температура составляет 15-20 °С.

Удаляют отцветшие цветоносные стебли и поврежденные листья.

В переувлажненной или плохо дренированной почве растения подвержены
загниванию корней, что почти всегда приводит к гибели. Единственная
мера предосторожности — использование подходящей земли. Другая
проблема, также связанная с характеристиками почв, — это хлороз.
Листья приобретают светло-зеленую окраску, а рост сильно замедляется.
Производят обработку хелатом железа.

Среди описанных видов у спараксиса трехцветного существует наиболее
широкий выбор культиваров, которые можно найти в фирмах, специализирующихся
на луковичных, или в садоводческих центрах. При покупке проверьте,
чтобы луковицы были здоровыми, без плесени. Растения, только
начинающие цвести, должны быть компактными.

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