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Хойя (плющ восковой)

Славянск - Хойя (Плющ восковой)Хойя (Плющ восковой)-  вьющиеся или со стелющимися побегами вечнозеленые растения,
кустарники. Листья яйцевидные, овальные, цельные, умеренно мясистые,
кожистые. Соцветия пазушные. Цветки собраны в зонтики; венчик округло-
пятичленистый, мясистый; коронка из 5 толстых, плоских, выпуклых,
двузубчатых и рассеченных столбиков. Распространены на островах
Малайского архипелага, частично в Индии и в тропической Австралии. В
роде 200 (100) видов. Высокодекоративные растения. Ряд видов широко
известен в оранжереях и как комнатные растения. 

Выращивание хой – дело не слишком сложное, при этом увлекательное и доставляющее
массу удовольствия. Некоторые хойки растут крайне медленно и неохотно, зато другие
моментально превращаются во взрослые цветущие экземпляры. Их разнообразие поразительно:
зеленые и пестролистные, крупнолистные и мелколистные, лианы и пряморастущие.

В отличие от других растений, хойи отращивают новые цветы на старых цветоносах,
поэтому их не надо обрывать после окончания цветения. С годами количество цветоносов
увеличивается, и цветение становится обильнее. Однако известны и исключения
— например, у H. bella и H. linearis цветоносы распускается
только однажды, опадая после цветения. У H. multiflora цветоносы обычно опадают
после повторного цветения.

Славянск - Хойя уходХойю выращивают
как вьющееся или ампельное растение, у нее мясистые листья и
зонтиковидные соцветия из восковидных звездчатых цветков,
распускающихся с мая по сентябрь. Обычный вид — Н. carnosa. В культуре
имеется несколько разновидностей, включая variegata (листья с кремовой
каймой), exotica (листья с желтой серединой) и Crimson Princess
(молодые листья красные). Н. austratis выглядит примерно так же, только
листья у нее почти круглые. Н. bella — ампельное растение, в комнатных
условиях ее выращивать труднее, чем Н. carnosa. В продаже бывает также
Н. multiflora — ее отличают бледные желтые цветочки.

Есть несколько правил относительно
того, чего нельзя делать при уходе за хойей: не трогайте растение после
того, как появились бутоны, не обрезайте отцветшие соцветия и не
пересаживайте до тех пор, пока это не станет неизбежным.

H. bella Hook. — П. в. прекрасный.

Низкорослые кустарники. Побеги стелющиеся, тонкие, густо облиствленные.
Листья яйцевидно-ланцетные, мелкие, 2-2.5 см дл., толстые, заостренные,
слабо выпуклые. Цветки в зонтиках, поникающие, маленькие, до 1.5 см в
диам., восковидные, белые, 5-дольчатые; коронка пурпурно-красная.
Цветет обильно и продолжительно летом. Встречается в лесах в Бирме.
Высокодекоративное растение. Широко применяется как ампельное в теплых
оранжереях и комнатах (рекомендуется устанавливать ближе к источнику
света).

H. carnosa (L. f.) R. Br. (Asclepias carnosa L., Hoya motoskei Teysm. a. Binnend.) — П. в. мясистый.

Лианы до 6 м дл.; стебли ползучие, опушенные. Листья
яйцевидно-продолговатые, яйцевидно-сердцевидные, 5-8 см дл. и 3-4 см
шир., с тупой вершиной, реже коротко заостренные, темно-зеленые,
глянцевитые, мясистые, на коротких черешках. Цветки в зонтиках, белые
или бледно-телесные, с розовой коронкой в центре, на коротко опушенных
цветоножках, 2-4 см дл.; венчик до 1-5 см в диам., 5-членный; доли
широкие, с закрученными краями и густо опущенные сверху; с приятным
ароматом. Растет в лесах, на скалах, деревьях в тропической и
субтропической Азии и в Квинсленде (Австралия). Широко известное
декоративное растение, выращивается в комнатах и оранжереях. Обильно
цветет весной и летом.

Славянск - ХойяH. imperialis Lindl. — П. в. величественный.

Вьющиеся растения, кустарники. Побеги опушенные. Листья
овально-продолговатые; 15-20 см дл., округлые у основания пластинки,
коротко заостренные у вершины, гладкие, кожистые. Черешок опушенный,
крупный, 5-7 см дл. Цветки по 6-10 в свисающих зонтиках, 12-20 см дл.,
темно-красные, снаружи зеленовато-желтые; коронка коротко опушенная, со
звездовидно расположенными лепестками, на опушенных коротких
цветоножках; с приятным ароматом. Обитает в лесах на п-ове Малакка.

H. multiflora (Decne.) Bl. — П. в. многоцветковый.

Вьющиеся растения. Листья продолговато-линейные. Цветки многочисленные,
собранные в зонтики, желтые; лепестки узкие; коронка с дуговидными
шпорами. Растет в лесах в Малайзии.

Местоположение

 
светлое, солнечное с большим
доступом воздуха. В полуденные часы растение следует защищать от прямых
солнечных лучей. Хойю нельзя выносить на свежий воздух. температура
зимой — 12-15 градусов. При более высокой температуре растение не
погибнет, но отсутствие периода покоя отрицательно скажется на его
цветении.

Освещение

 

Яркий свет

Полив

 

в период роста регулярный. Не следует допускать пересыхания земляного кома.

Влажность воздуха

 

Умеренная

Влажность: дополнительные сведения

 

Во время выгонки необходимо опрыскивать растение.

Уход

 
Для удержания растений в
вертикальном положении необходима прочная опора. Молодые растения
пересаживают ежегодно, так как они интенсивно развиваются в более
объемистой посуде; старые (взрослые) растения пересаживают один раз в 3
года. Для усиления роста вегетативных побегов удобрения вносят 2 раза в
месяц, начиная с апреля по сентябрь. В качестве удобрения применяют
полное минеральное удобрение из расчета: 40 г на 10 л воды, один раз в
месяц, и вторично — навозную жижу. Высокая интенсивность света (светлые
окна в комнатах) активизируют образование цветочных почек. Цветение
продолжается до осени. После отцветания цветоносы не следует удалять,
так как в следующем году на них появляются бутоны — цветки (обильность
цветения в комнатах стимулируется погружением растений на 30 минут в
теплую (35°) воду, а ком земли — на 2 ч., весной и осенью).

Размножение

 
Растения размножают
черенками весной и осенью (практически возможно в течение всего года
вегетации). Черенки режут с одной, двумя парами листьев, но можно
использовать и более длинные. Субстрат для черенкования составляют из
торфа — 2 ч., песка — 1 ч. Появление корней у черешков бывает не на
узлах, а между узлами, поэтому срез черенков производят не под узлом, а
ниже узла. Оптимальная температура для укоренения не менее 20°. Черенки
воскового плюща легко укореняются и в комнатных условиях (можно
размножать и воздушными отводками, а также листьями с пазушной почкой).
Укоренившиеся (на 20-25-й день) черенки высаживают в 9-сантиметровые
горшки. Состав земли следующий: дерновая — 1 ч., листовая — 2 ч.,
перегнойная — 1/2 ч. и песок — 1 ч.; суперфосфат, калийная соль,
сульфат аммония вносятся по 2 кг на 1 м куб. смеси. Растения нуждаются
в обильной поливке, особенно в период интенсивного роста.
Местоположение рекомендуется светлое, по возможности солнечное. Зимой
поливку ограничивают, однако земляной ком не доводят до полной
просушки. Температура для всех восковых плющей должна быть не ниже 16°
(исключение составляет H. carnosa, его содержат при 13°). Летом, кроме
обильной поливки, необходимы опрыскивание растений и проветривание
помещения; оптимальная температура для их роста и развития 22-25°.
Растения цветут обильно.

Пересадка

 

По необходимости весной.

Успехов вам в уходе за домашними цветами !

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