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Хоста

В культуре известна с конца 18 века. Выведено много садовых форм и
сортов хосты. Особенно эффектны и пользуются большим спросом
пестролистные формы.

Хосты, или функии по праву называют «королевами» тенистого
сада. Их роскошные розетки, образованные плотными прикорневыми листьями,
бывают миниатюрными или гигантскими; изумительная окраска листьев разнообразной
фактуры и формы у разных видов и сортов имеет буквально все оттенки зелёного
цвета, а у некоторых особо ценных хост дополняется белым, кремовым, золотистым,
голубовато-синим.

Широкая или узкая кайма, полоски или пятно контрастного цвета придают
пестролистным хостам особый шарм. Выведены двух- и трёхцветные хосты,
окраска которых особенно чётко выражена в первой половине лета. Листья
хосты (округлые, сердцевидные, стреловидные, ланцетные) на длинных, дугообразно
изогнутых черешках фонтаном ниспадают из центра розетки. Высота хост вырьирует
от 20 до 90 см; по высоте хосты делятся на четыре группы: карликовые,
низкорослые, среднерослые, высокорослые.

Славянск - ХостаВозвышающиеся над листьями длинные цветоносы хосты увенчаны в июле-августе
множеством нежных белых, сиреневых или лиловатых цветков, собранных в
многоцветковое соцветие. Эти изящные воронковидные цветки, напоминающие
миниатюрные лилии, издают тонкий изысканный аромат.

Функия (Funkia) происходит из восточной части Азии, где используется
как пищевое, лекарственное и декоративное растение. По-латыни растение
названо хостой (Hosta) в честь австрийского врача и ботаника Т. Госта.
Известно около 40 видов функии; наиболее распространенные из них: хоста
курчавая (H. crispula) или хоста Форчуна (H. fortunei), хоста японская
(H. japonica), хоста Зибольда (Hosta sieboldiana) хоста волнистая (Hosta
undulata), хоста вздутая (H. ventricosa). Межвидовые и межсортовые скрещивания
позволили селекционерам получить хосту гибридную (H. gybrida); сейчас
создано более 2000 сортов хост.

В зависимости от окраски листьев хосты подразделяют на пять групп:
— голубая (B) — листья имеют голубовато-сизый восковой налёт;
— зелёная (Gr) — с листьями разных оттенков зелёного цвета;
— жёлтая (Go) — объединяет желтолистные хосты;
— вариегата (V) — включает пестролистные сорта: пёстро-золотистые, с белой
каймой, с жёлтой или кремовой каймой;
— медиовариегата (MV) — листья имеют зелёную кайму, а остальная часть
листа имеет белую или жёлтую окраску.

Хоста — одно из немногих растений, которое требует минимального ухода
и растёт «как бы само собой» многие годы на одном месте в тенистом
саду, становясь с каждым годом всё красивее. Многие сорта хост разрастаются
очень медленно — этим, да ещё и дефицитом посадочного материала объясняется
их дороговизна. Красивые листья и цветки позвляют использовать универсальную
хосту в любых композициях сада: как декоративнолистных, так и цветочных.
Гармоничные куртинки хост сохраняют декоративность весь сезон и просто
незаменимы для полутенистых и тенистых уголков сада в качестве ковровых
посадок под деревьями, как бордюр и в самостоятельных группах. Чудесно
смотрятся хосты у водоёма и среди камней в альпинарии. Хостами часто декорируют
в саду высокие стебли растений, имеющих малопривлекательные листья. Вокруг
хост часто сажают раннецветущие мелколуковичные: когда они отцветают,
то отрастающие позже листья хосты маскируют их отмирающую листву.

Живописные листья хосты и её длинные цветоносы с цветками часто используют
при составлении букетов и аранжировок.

Хосты очень неприхотливы, но выполнение некоторых условий культивирования
способствует развитию пышной розетки листьев и обильному цветению. Они
нетребовательны к почвам, но на рыхлых, богатых, слабокислых, умеренно
увлажнённых почвах развиваются лучше. Толстое укороченное корневище хосты
имеет крепкие шнуровидные корни. При посадке хосты в посадочную лунку
желательно внести компост, перегной, торф и минеральные удобрения, особенно
при выращивании на бедных плотных почвах. Эти растения очень отзывчивы
на удобрение.

Хосты влаголюбивы (однако не выносят сырости), но взрослые экземпляры,
корневая система которых глубоко проникает в почву, становятся довольно
засухоустойчивыми.
Тенелюбивые хосты высаживают в тени или полутени, но при регулярном поливе
они хорошо растут и на солнце, хотя в сильную жару нередко страдают от
перегрева и чрезмерной освещённости — они не вырастают на открытом месте
сада такими же шикарными, как в полутени. Пестролистные хосты более светолюбивы,
чем зеленолистные: при недостатке света их листья могут потерять привлекательную
пёструю окраску и позеленеть.

Хосты морозостойки; однако осенью, когда снег ещё не выпал, а уже существенно
подмораживает, хосты рекомендуется замульчировать утепляющим материалом.
Весеннее мульчирование почвы вокруг розетки хосты перегноем или копостом
позволяет сохранить влагу у корней и заодно подкормить растение.

Пересадку хосты переносят легко, особенно в молодом возрасте; но всё же
не стоит часто пересаживать и делить хосту — это затормозит её развитие
и поубавит великолепия. Хосты становятся по-настоящему красивыми, когда
вступают в пору юности (5 лет), к зрелости (10 лет) они в полной мере
проявляют свои достоинства, которые сохраняют до самой старости (20 лет).

Размножают хосты методом культуры ткани in vitro, семенами, весенним
или осенним делением кустов.
Семена хосты высевают весной на рассаду в горшок (ящик), или в мае-июне
на затенённую грядку в саду. Посевы слегка присыпают лёгким плодородным
субстратом; горшок накрывают стеклом или плёнкой для сохранения влаги.
При температуре почвы 18-25 градусов всходы появляются через 2-3 недели
(предпосевная обработка семян стимулятором роста ускорит их прорастание). Сеянцы хосты берегут от прямого солнца
и умеренно поливают, периодически подкармливают и опрыскивают листья.
В конце лета молодые розетки хост высаживают на постоянное место в саду.
При посадке розетку хосты помещают точно на ту же глубину, как она росла
раньше, поливают и слегка мульчируют.
Диаметр розеток хост значительно колеблется в зависимости от вида и сорта.
Низкорослые и карликовые хосты обычно сажают через 30 см; среднерослые
— реже (60 см). Более крупные растения размещают на значительном расстоянии
друг от друга (80-100 см), чтобы они хорошо просматривались со всех сторон
и сумели проявить себя во всей красе.

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