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Хризантема

Славянск - хризантемаХризантема — латинское название: Chrysanthemum (dendrathema).Слово chrysantumum состоит из двух греческих слов chrysos- золото и anthemous- цветок, т.е. «золотой цветок». Япония является родиной хризантем. Там хризантемы пользуются всеобщей
любовью: из разводят повсюду, создавая все новые и новые сорта. Раньше
изображение хризантемы считалось священным, и носить его на одежде
могли только члены императорского дома. Цветок этот стал
государственной эмблемой, его изображение помещалось на национальной
флаге, на монетах и на высшем японском ордене, который так и
называется: орден Хризантемы. В Японии даже есть праздник хризантем.

А
в Китае его именем даже назвали девятый месяц. А еще китайцы готовят из
цветков хризантем вкусный десерт. Кушанье это похоже на нежное
пирожное, нравится оно не только китайцам, но и приезжающим в страну
иностранцам.

В Европу хризантема попала в XVII веке. Известна даже точная дата-
1676 год, когда голландец Рееде привез это растение в Англию. Пьер
Бланшар доставил его во Францию, в Марсель. Садоводы не сразу обратили
внимание на «иностранку», потому что привезенные цветы не представляли
ничего особенного, они были похожи на обыкновенную ромашку. Но в начале
XIX века садовник из Телузы Берне начал разводить хризантемы из семян и
получил много новых красивых сортов.

Х. ладьевидная или килеватая:

Стебель прямой, высотой 50 см, разветвленный снизу, соцветия крупные,
немахровые (обычно пестрые), полумахровые и махровые (белые, буро-
красные, желтые и пестрые)

Х. корончатая или венцевидная:
Быстрорастущее растение, высотой до 100см, соцветия простые или махровые, белые и желтые.

Х. посевная:
Высота до 50 см, соцветия золотистые, желтые, простые или махровые.

Местоположение

 
Светлое и солнечное (от
полуденного солца следует притенять), при температуре 15-19 гр., летом
на свежем воздухе, зимой при температуре 5-10 гр.

Освещение

 

Яркий свет

Полив

 

Обильный, но может перенести даже непродолжительную засуху.

Влажность воздуха

 

Умеренная

Уход

 
Стебель по мере роста теряет
декоративность, поэтому для поддержания декоративности куста
рекомендуется периодическая обрезка.При высаживании в открытый грунт
растение приближается к своей натуральной форме, образует травянистые,
к осени одревесневающие стебли высотой до 90 см и разветвленное
корневище.Горшечные хризантемы при выращивании обрабатываются
регуляторами роста и содержатся при специальном световом режиме,
поэтому на прилавки поступают компактные обильно цветущие кустики.
Хочется предупредить, что их назначение — букет в горшке, при
длительном выращивании в домашних условиях они теряют декоративность,
вытягиваются и могут на следующий год не зацвести. Мелкоцветковую
кустарниковую хризантему можно возобновлять весенним черенкованием, а
крупноцветковые сорта лучше на лето высаживать в открытый грунт, а к
осени пересаживать в горшки для домашнего цветения поздней осенью.В
принципе это довольно нетребовательное растение, уход обычный: рыхление
почвы, подкормка минеральными удобрениями раз в 2 недели в период
роста, регулярный полив.Для того, чтобы добиться ветвления побегов, их
нужно прищипывать. Но еще раз заметим — все-таки это растение открытого
грунта.

Размножение

 
Хризантему шелковицелистную
и кустарниковую размножают верхушечными черенками при температуре 20-22
гр., остальные сорта (типа Charm и Cascade)- семенами весной.

Пересадка

 

Ежегодно в садовую смесь, т.к. это- растение открытого грунта.

Возможные трудности

 

Увядшие листья — недостаточный полив.

Короткий период цветения — растению жарко, при температуре 20-25 гр. соцветия быстро распускаются и увядают.

Бутоны не раскрываются — либо растение было куплено с зелеными бутонами, либо его поместили в плохо освещенное место.

Вредители— тля и красный паутинный клещик. При избыточно влажной зимовки- корневая гниль.

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