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Зефирантес

Славянск - ЗефирантесЗефирантес – растение, происходящее из Центральной и Южной Америки,
имеет средний рост, любит свет, не боится прямых солнечных лучей и
ежегодно цветет. Оптимальной температурой во время активного роста является 18-250С, а
во время покоя более благоприятна низкая температура – 10-120С. Во
время роста требуется регулярный полив, который сокращается в период
покоя. Полив зефирантеса должен быть осторожным во избежание загнивания луковицы. К
влажности воздуха особых требований не предъявляется.

Многие любители выращивают растение зефирантес , даже не зная точно, что оно из себя представляет. И хотя оно иногда бывает в продаже под названием «водяная лилия», к лилейным оно не относится. Это представитель сем. Амариллисовых, родственник наших гиппеаструмов. У него маленькие, удлиненные вверху луковки. Из 70 видов, распространенных в теплых областях западного полушария, в культуре можно изредка встретить зефирантес крупноцветковый, но чаще речь идет о гибридах, которые поступают в продажу под названиями розовый (Z. rosea), хабраитус розовый или хабраптус мощный. Как отличить зефирантес от хабрантуса, рассказано.

В умеренно отапливаемых проветриваемых помещениях выращивание зефирантеса не представляет никаких трудностей. У них образуется много дочерних луковиц. Розовые цветки появляются только на достаточно освещенных местах. В притенении образуются только вытянутые линейные листья, они мало декоративны. Еще уже листья у з. белого (Z. Candida), сильного вида с красивым цветением, в английских садах он растет в открытом грунте.

 

Зефирантес уход

Свет: светлое место.

Температура: комнатная температура; зимой достаточно около 10 °С.

Субстрат: обычные готовые субстраты, к которым добавляют немного песка. Можно использовать № 6 с 1/5 песка или серамиса; рН около 6.

Славянск - зефірантесВлажность: во время роста соблюдать постоянную влажность, но избегать застоя воды. Зимой поливают лишь изредка, но иногда применяют другой метод — содержат луковицы совсем сухо, с полным периодом покоя. Тогда исключается опасность загнивания луковиц зимой. С февраля начинают полив, вначале очень осторожно. 3. белый изредка поливают даже зимой, чтобы на растениях сохранялись листья.

Удобрение: с весны до осени через 1 — 2 недели поливать цветочным удобрением.

Пересадка: ежегодно в конце периода покоя. Луковицы сажают в землю так, чтобы из нее виднелись только их верхушки.

Размножение: при пересадке отделяют многочисленные дочерние луковицы.

Уход за зефирантесом и тем более размножение не составляет особого труда и очень схож с выращиванием гиппеаструма.

Зефирантес очень любит яркое солнце и летом лучше высадить его в открытый грунт. К концу сезона образуется крупная луковица, которая будет обильно цвести в следующем году. Недаром в субтропических парках зефирантес высаживают как почвопокровное растение вместо газона. Низкая густая листва, высокая скорость размножения позволяет ему быстро захватывать и хорошо удерживать пространство.

Луковицы «выскочки» маленькие, продолговатые, от 1 до 3 см в длину, растут тесными гнездами. Высаживать их надо по несколько штук в широкие и низкие горшки или глубокие плошки, до самой верхушки зарывая в землю. У длинных луковиц шейку оставляют на поверхности. Предпочитает плодородный рыхлый субстрат из равных количеств перегноя, дерновой земли и песка. Можно добавить фосфорные удобрения. Следует позаботиться о хорошем дренаже, так как зефирантес не любит затопление.

Летом зефирантесу необходим обильный полив, лучше поливать с поддона, в этом случае не происходит уплотнение и вымывание грунта в верхней части горшка, где ожидаются всходы. Зимой растение «зефирантес» может листьев не сбрасывать, но полив следует уменьшить и поставить горшок в светлое прохладное место. Температуру желательно понизить до 8 — 14 градусов. При выращивании зефирантеса нужно обращать внимание на влажность почвы и не допускать его пересыхания, а также переувлажнения.

Славянск - зефирантес фотоУдобрения лучше давать только минеральные и регулярно подкармливать в сезон активного роста. После появления и раскрытия первого бутона подкормки следует прекратить и возобновить только после увядания последнего цветка. Некоторые источники наоборот считают, что в период цветения подкармливать нужно (возможно они и правы).

С вегетативным размножением у зефирантеса обычно проблем не возникает. Он обильно дает луковицы-детки, которые быстро заполняют весь горшок. Размножают растение зефирантес при пересадках, перед периодом покоя или во время него. Нужно отделить детки и высадить их в хорошо удобренный субстрат, обеспечить светом и уже на следующий сезон молодые луковицы зацветут.

Размножение зефирантеса семенами возможно, но к нему прибегают редко. Посев семян нужно проводить как можно раньше после их созревания, так как они быстро теряют всхожесть. После долгого хранения семян, результат посева может быть не очень хороший. Для того чтобы получить семена, необходимо искусственное опыление, а вызревают они в течение 2 месяцев после него.


При посеве семян почвенный субстрат нужен такой же, как при посадке луковиц. Можно добавить еще часть торфа. Почву увлажняют и разравнивают. Семена сеют с интервалом в 2-3 см. Плошку накрывают пленкой, ставят в затененное место и содержат при температуре не ниже 22 °C. Нужно следить, чтобы почва все время оставалась увлажненной. Всходы появляются на 3-4 неделе. Цвести сеянцы будут только на третий год после посева.
 
Пусть комнатные растения всегда радуют Вас своей красотой!


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